faculty of Agriculture

Permanent URI for this collection


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 64
  • Item
    Mineralogical investigation of fine clastic rocks from Central Sarawak, Malaysia
    (University of Khartoum, 2018) Walaa Elnasir Ibrahim ; Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed Salim ; Weng Sum,Chow
    The reduction in the conventional resources and insistent request for hydrocarbons and energy lead us to look forward for the increasing interest in unconventional resources by exploring new technologies for the national economy and local utilization in Malaysia. Upper Mesozoic-Cenozoic is considered the age of Central Sarawak Formations. This paper attempts to evaluate the clay mineralogy, depositional environment, gamma ray evaluation and the relationship between total organic carbon and uranium concentration of the Nyalau, Tatau, Begrih, Liang and Belaga Formation which eventually comprise black shales and mudstones using spectral gamma ray (SGR), feld-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray difraction (XRD), XRD clay separation and total organic content (TOC%). The results from SGR indicate that the formations composed mainly of kaolinite, smectite and chlorite. These results are confrmed by XRD, XRD clay separation and FESEM with the presence of illite as a dominant clay mineral component. Based on Th/U ratios which vary between 0.42 and 3.95, the for mations are expected to be deposited in the reduced marine environment. Results from calculated API (90.76–233.32 API) reveal the ability of the clay minerals to absorb uranium and thorium through cation exchange capacity. The relationship between TOC% and U cross plots also show a signifcant positive correlation. The presence of high U concentrations in the formations is possible because of their relatively higher clay contents and the existence of organic matter.
  • Item
    Geological interpretation of Spectral Gamma Ray (SGR) of fine clastic rocks from the Nyalau Formation central Sarawak, Malaysia
    (University of Khartoum, 2020) Walaa Elnasir Ibrahim ; Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed Salim ; Weng Sum ,Chow ; Eswaran Padmanabhan
    Abstract: The increasing interest for shale gas exploitation as unconventional resources is aided by the new technological advancement that has marked the pathway to explore shale gas for local utilization and national economy in Malaysia. The Nyalau Formation which is an Oligocene - Middle Miocene in age. This article attempts to analyze the depositional environment, Gamma Ray, clay mineralogy and evaluate the relationship between uranium concentration and total organic carbon (TOC) of the Nyalau Formation comprise of shales and mudstones using Spectral Gamma Ray (SGR). The results from SGR indicate to compose principally kaolinite and Smectite, XRD analysis and FESEM reveals the presence of illite. The Th/U ratios vary between 0.57 and 0.85 indicate formation is deposited in a reduced marine environment. Calculated API reveals the ability of the clay minerals to absorb uranium and thorium through cation exchange capacity. The relationship between the cross plot of TOC% / U shows positive correlation.
  • Item
    (University of Khartoum, 2018) Walaa Elnasir Ibrahim ; Abdul Ghani MD Rafek ; Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed Salim
    Abstract This paper examines the Cretaceous – Upper Pliocene shale and mudstone outcrops in Central Sarawak. Related geological studies focused basically on sandstone and coals of Sarawak Basin, with no comprehensive outcrop study on lithological variations in the black shales and mudstone formations. Detailed lithological variations of these formations will allow us discretize potential shale gas intervals. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the field geological characteristics of the Black shales and mudstone formations of Central Sarawak by using outcrop description, sedimentary log analysis, spectral gamma ray (SGR) data and geochemical characteristics (TOC %) of the selected mudstones and black shales. The study covers Nyalau, Tatau, Begrih, Liang and Belaga formations. Representative samples of the formations were subjected to detailed description in terms of lithology, structures and stratigraphy. Features such as laminations, sandstone intercalations, coal lenses, iron nodules, phyllite inclusions and fault structures were identified in the black shale and mudstone. The lowest U (ppm) was recorded for Belaga Formation, which can be attributed to the low grade metamorphism of the Formation, whereas the higher U (ppm) in Tatau and other formations is possibly due to their relatively higher clay content. The TOC values for all formations varied from 0.8% to 3.17%, suggesting they have fair to good hydrocarbon generative potential.
  • Item
    Water Sorption Isotherms of Sorghum Grains (sorghum Bicolor L. Moench) Under Different Temperatures and Water Activities
    (University of Khartoum, 2021) Eman Abdu Abdalla ; Adam Bush Adam ; Saher Gaafer Ahmed ; Abdelmoneim Elamin Mohamed
    In the semi arid conditions of Sudan, the determination of moisture sorption isotherms at different temperatures and water activities to establish the correctly storage conditions for crops grains is highly needed. The objective of this study was to determine the moisture sorption isotherms of two local varieties of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L Moench.) namely; Tabat and Wad Ahmed at various temperatures and water activities. The study was conducted at the Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Khartoum and the Department of Grains Technology, Food Research and Processing Center, Shambat, Sudan during the period from December 2006 to December 2008.
  • Item
    Strengthening the Crop Water Productivity of Tomato Under the Environmental Control of Greenhouse Technology
    (University of Khartoum, 2021) Saher Gaafar Ahmed ; Abdelmoneim Elamin Mohamed ; Adam Bush Adam ; Eman Abdu Abdalla
    Improving crop water productivity of vegetable crops under the environmental control of greenhouses conditions is one of the main problems facing the crop production in the hot climate of Sudan. Two experiments were carried out at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan during the two seasons (2009/2010) with the objective of enhancing crop water productivity of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) under controlled environment of greenhouse and open field conditions. Five tomato cultivars imported from the National Agricultural Research Centre (Egypt) namely; Bashair 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 and two varieties Po262 and Po265 from Sudan. Greenhouse was monitored and adopted to avoid overheating air temperature inside the greenhouse. The parameters tested were irrigation efficiency (%), crop water requirements (mm/day), crop productivity (kg/m2) and water productivity (kg/m3). SAS Statistical Package was used to analyze the data, while the variations among the means were checked by LSD. The results showed that crop water productivity significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased under greenhouse conditions (9.3kg/m2 - 19.8 kg/m3) as compared to open field conditions (3.1kg/m2 - 4.2 kg/m3) in both seasons. The increases percentage of crop water productivity reached up to 63% as compared to open field conditions. It is recommended that, greenhouses should be monitored and adopted to control the environmental impact inside greenhouse which leads to increase the crop water productivity.