Department of Medical Entomology

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    In Vitro Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Balanites Aegyptiaca Leaves, Fruit Kernels and Diazinon on the Larval Stages of the House Fly Musca domestica
    (University of Khartoum, 2020) Nehad Hamed Asosa Younis
    Abstract Background: The housefly control is an important measure in control of many diseases transmitted by those flies. In this study, Diazinon insecticide and the aqueous extract of Balanites aegyptiaca leaves, kernel fruits were tested against the house fly larvae under laboratory conditions. This experimental study was done at the University of Khartoum Faculty of Public and Environmental Health laboratory. All larvae were collected from Alsouge Elmerkazi (Souge Alsamk), in Jabal Awliya Locality, Khartoum State. The study design: This study was an experimental one with the aim to find out the toxic effect of Balanites aegyptiaca leaves and kernel fruits on the house fly larvae on one hand and Diazinon insecticide on the other hand. Methods: In the laboratory, the aqueous extract of Balanites aegyptiaca leaves, kernels and fruits was prepared by dissolving 20 grams of Balanites aegyptiaca leaves, kernels and fruits powder in 200 ml of water (concentration 0.1) ml/gm. Point two (0.2) grams of Diazinon powder were also dissolved in 200 ml of water bringing a concentration of 0.001 ml/gm. Eight serial concentrations of the aqueous extract of Balanites aegyptiaca kernels fruits were prepared (0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1.1, 1.3, 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9 concentrations). Eight concentrations of Balanites aegyptiaca leaves (0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1.1, 1.3, 1.5, 1.7, 1.9, and another eight concentrations Diazinon (0.005, 0.007, 0.009, 0.011, 0.013, 0.015, 0.017 and 0.019) were also prepared. Twenty larvae were of the housefly were isolated in each of 8 plates and were then subjected to one of the 8 different concentrations of the aqueous extract of Balanites aegyptiaca leaves and kernels fruits, Extra 20 larvae were isolated in each of 8 plates and were also subjected to 8 different concentrations of Diazinon. Twenty larvae for each of the three sets were isolated as control for each set. After 24 hours, mortality among the housefly larvae for each concentration was recorded. The percentage of death was transformed to the probit units and logarithms for each concentration were obtained. The regression line for each toxicity experiment was drawn. Each experiment was repeated three times. Finally, the Lc50 of the aqueous extracts of each Balanites aegyptiaca leaves and kernels fruits and the LC50 of Diazinon on housefly larvae were obtained. Results: The results of the aqueous extract of Balanites aegyptiaca kernels fruits experiments showed that the average mortality rate of the highest concentration used (1.9) was 96.6% while the lowest concentration (0.5) gave a mortality rate of 36.6% and the LC50 was found to be 0.818. The results of the aqueous extract of Balanites aegyptiaca leaves experiments showed that the average mortality rate of the highest concentration used (1.9) was 75% while the lowest concentration (0.5) gave a mortality rate of 1% and the LC50 was found to be 1.267 The results of the Diazinon experiments showed that the average mortality rate of the highest concentration used (0.019) was 80% and the lowest concentration (0.005) gave a mortality rate of 23% and the LC50was found to be 0.011. Conclusion: the aqueous extract of Balanites aegyptiaca kernels fruits was more effective against housefly larvae. It gave an average mortality rate of 96.6% among the housefly larvae tested compared to leaves 75% and 80% mortality caused by Diazinon. Recommendation: The study recommended the potential use of the water extract of Balanites aegyptiaca kernels fruits and leaves as an insecticide against the housefly larvae after an extra detailed studies on the topic. المستخلص الخلفية : تعتبر مكافحة الذباب المنزلي من أهم التدابير المستخدمة للسيطرة على العديد من الأمراض التي تنتقل عن طريق تلك الذبابة، وفي هذه الدراسة تم اختبار مبيد الديازينون والمستخلص المائي لأوراق ونواة ثمار نبات اللالوب ، ضد يرقات الذباب المنزلي في ظل ظروف معملية. وأجريت هذه الدراسة التجريبية في معمل كلية الصحة العامة وصحة البيئة بجامعة الخرطوم. وتم جمع كل اليرقات من السوق المركزي (سوق السمك) بمحلية جبل الأولياء بولاية الخرطوم. تصميم الدراسة : هذه الدراسة هي دراسة تجريبية بهدف التعرف على التأثير السام لأوراق ونواة ثمار نبات اللالوب على يرقات الذباب المنزلي ومبيد الديازينون من جهة أخرى. الطريقة : في المعمل تم تحضير المستخلص المائي لكل من نواة ثمار و اوراق نبات اللالوب و ذلك بإذابة 20 جرام من بدرة كل من نواة ثمار و اوراق نبات اللالوب في 200 مل من الماء (التركيز 0.1) مل/جم، كما تمت إذابة 0.2 جرام من مبيد الديازنون في 200 مل من الماء (التركيز 0.001)مل/جم. تم تحضير8 تراكيز من المستخلص المائي لنواة ثمار نبات اللالوب وكانت 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1.1, 1.3, 1.5, 1.7, 1.9 وايضا تم تحضير 8 تراكيز اخرى لمستخلص اوراق نبات اللالوب 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1.1, 1.3, 1.5, 1.7, 1.9 و كما تم تحضير 8 تراكيز من مبيد الديازنون وكانت 0.005 , 0.007, 0.009, 0.011, 0.013, 0.015, 0.017, 0.019 تم وضع 20 يرقة في كل كأس إختبار وتعريضها الي 8 تراكيز مختلفة من المستخلص المائي لنواة ثمار نبات اللالوب و 20 يرقة اخري فى 8 تراكيز مختلفة من المستخلص المائى لاوراق نبات اللالوب كما تم وضع 20 يرقة في كل كأس إختبار وتعريضها إلى 8 تراكيز مختلفة من مبيد الديازنون وتم عزل 20 يرقة لكل مجموعة من المجموعات الثلاثة كمجموعة كنترول لكل منها. بعد 24 ساعه تم تسجيل نسبة الموت في كل تركيز وتحويلها الي وحدات البروبيت ومن ثم تم الحصول علي لوغرثم كل التراكيز ورسم خط السمية لكل تجربة، وتم تكرار كل تجربة 3 مرات وأخيرا تم الحصول علي قيمة LC50 لكلٌ من المستخلص المائي لنواة ثمار و اوراق نبات اللالوب و مبيد الديازنون. النتائج : اظهرت نتائج اختبار المستخلص المائي لنواة ثمار نبات اللالوب إن أعلي نسبة موت في المتوسط كانت (96.6%) عند أعلي تركيز وهو (1.9)، وإن أقل نسبة موت في المتوسط كانت (36.6%) عند أقل تركيز وهو (0.5)، وقيمة LC50 كانت0.818. بينما اعطت اوراق نبات اللالوب فى المتوسط اعلى نسبة موت (%75) عند اعلى تركيز وهو(1.9) و اقل نسبة موت فى المتوسط (%1) عند اقل تركيز وهو (0.5) و قيمة LC50 كانت 1.267 اما بالنسبة للمبيد Diazinon فقد اظهرت نتائج الاختبار ان اعلى نسبة موت فى المتوسط كانت (80%) عند أعلي تركيز وهو (0.019) ، وإن أقل نسبة موت في المتوسط كان (23%) عند أقل تركيز وهو (0.005)، وقيمة LC50 كانت 0.011 . الخلاصة: كان المستخلص المائي لنواة ثمار اللالوب أكثر فاعلية ضد يرقات الذباب المنزلي، حيث أعطى متوسط معدل موت 96.6٪ بين يرقات الذباب التي تم اختبارها مقارنة بمتوسط نسبة موت 75٪ لمستخلص الاوراق و 80٪ موت لمبيد الديازينون. التوصيات : أوصت الدراسة بإمكانية استخدام المستخلص المائي من نواة ثمار وأوراق اللالوب كمبيد حشري ليرقات الذباب المنزلي بعد إجراء مزيد من الدراسات التفصيلية حول هذا الموضوع
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    Detection of Plasmodium Falciparum resistance genes associated with Chloroquine and Fansidar in South Khartoum and Eastern-Sudan
    (university of khartoum, ) Linda Abbasher Mahmoud Gism-Elseed ; Maowia M. Mukhtar
    Background: Drug resistance has been a major obstacle in malaria reduction. Plasmodium falciparum has shown an extraordinary ability to develop resistance to all antimalarial employed and implementing molecular markers for monitoring the drug resistance may be essential to overcome the problem. The overall aim of this study was to demonstrate the prevalence of drugs resistant coding genes in Plasmodium falciparum parasite in areas of marked seasonal and unstable malaria transmission in southern Khartoum and eastern Sudan. Material and Methods: The study has examined prevalence of 5 genes implicated in P.falciparumdrug resistance: the chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt), dihydrofolatereductase(dhfr), dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) and multi-drug resistance (pfmdr-1) among parasite populations in Daraweesh village in eastern Sudan and in Mayo Camp in the capital Khartoum. Samples were collected form positive film malaria patients in day one before treatment and followed to the third day of treatment. Only patients with treatment follow up in the third day were included within the research. Twenty six blood samples from Daraweesh village and 66 samples from Mayo Camp were collected and examined for Pfcrt, Pf-mdr1, Pfdhfr and Pfdhpsgenes using PCR and DNA sequencing. Result: Chloroquine resistance genes (Pfcrtand Pfmdr1) showed consistent increase in frequencies in Mayo camp isolates. single and double mutant genotype (NLFWSND, YLYWSND, and YLFWSND) were detected in high prevalence in Pfmdr1 (P. value 0.03). Moreover, Pfcrtthe triple genotype were dominant (CVIET), and all isolates harbored mutation at codon 76T. 69.2% of Daraweesh village isolates carried single mutant genotype CVMNT in Pfcrt gene. Single mutant genotype in Pfmdr1 gene was found in low frequency YLYWSND while NLFWSND was in a high prevalence. 84.6% of the isolates carried the sensitive allele at 581A and 70% isolates carried the mutant allele at 437G and 540E at the dhpsgene in Daraweesh village, while in Mayo camp, 13.6% of the isolates harbored the mutant Alleles 436A\F, 60% of the isolates were mutant at 437G and (47%) isolates harbored the mutant allele 581G. The alleles 540K and 613A were wild in the all isolates. Dhfrin Daraweesh village the pyrimethamine resistance genotype (ICNI) was the highest and observed in 57.7% of the isolates. Double mutant IRSI and single mutant genotype ICSI were found in 7.7% and 11.5% of the isolates respectively.
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    Factors Affecting Oviposition and Larval Development of Anopheles arabiensis in East Nile Locality - Khartoum State.
    (UOFK, 2015-03-29) Fadlelmola, Radia Abdelbasit Khairalla ; Dr. Tigani Mohamed Hassan Allam ; Medical Entomology
    Longitudinal study for larval survey was carried out in the period between March 2009 and August 2009 in East Nile unit area in Khartoum. The study showed that Anopheles arabiensis larval presence varied significantly between different types of breeding sites. Although the larvae were collected from all identified types of water accumulations, the most important breeding sites were The Nile flood pools 36%, rain pools 22.6%; broken drinking water pipes leakages 20%, irrigation channels seepage 15.3% and brick making sites 12.5%. The study showed that the presence of Anopheles arabiensis larvae was influenced by physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the breeding sites. Habitats with warm water, Anopheles arabiensis larvae were found in water with a range of surface temperature between 16 and 42 °C. The percentages of positive breeding sites increased with in crease in temperature. The percentage of positive breeding sites with water salinity of 0 g/l was 4.3%, and those with salinity ranging between 0.1and 0.5 g/l was12.1% and those with a salinity of more than 0.5 g/l was 3.2%. The percentage of positive breeding sites with a pH of 3-6 was 6.9%, and a pH of 6.5-7.5 was 7.8% and a pH of 8-9 was 23.9 %. The percentage of positive breeding sites within water surface areas of less than one sq meter was 4.2% and in a surface range of 1-10 sq meters was 14.5% and in more than 10 sq meters was 7.4%. In a water depth of less than 10 cm, the percentage of positive breeding sites was 8.9%, and a range of water depth of 10-50 cm was 12% and in a depth of more than 50 cm, the percentage was 3%. Sunlight affected the number of Anopheles arabiensis breeding sites. The percentage of positive breeding sites in water with less than 25% shade was 9.9%, and a range of shade of 25-75% was 6.8%and in a shade of more than 75% was 1.3%. The presence of surface algae affected the breeding sites. The percentage of breeding with surface algae was 23% and those without surface algae were 4.9%. The percentage of positive breeding sites detected in water with aquatic vegetation was 7.9%, while those in water without aquatic vegetation was 5.2%. The presence of other species of mosquitoes affected the percentage of positive breeding sites of Anopheles arabiensis. Thus in water with other mosquito species the percentage of positive breeding sites was 47.2 % and those without other mosquito species were 3.5%. The presence of other groups of aquatic invertebrates affects the percentage of positive breeding sites of Anopheles arabiensis. In waters with other aquatic invertebrates the percentageof positive breeding sites was 32.3% and those without other aquatic invertebrates the percentage of positive breeding sites was 0.9%. Anopheles arabiensis larvae were not affected with amount of organic content and were also not affectedwith the degree of turbidity of water. The presence of Anopheles arabiensis in East Nile Unit depended mainly on The Nile River level and the rainy season. The highest percentage of positive breeding sites was found during the post-flood season (36 %) and rainy season (22.6). Larval surveys provided spatial and temporal information about Anopheles arabiensis breeding sites which is strongly required for larval control. The study recommended that more comprehensive studies should be carried out over a longer period of time to determine the effect of the natural variations in the breeding sites on Anopheles arabiensis larvae presence and density.
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    Assessment of the efficacy Of Gambusia affinis As A larvivorous Fish of Malaria
    (University of Khartoum, 2015-03-25) yassir Ahmed Sulaiman ; Ahmed Hussein ; Medical Entomology
    This study aimed at assessing the efficacy of Gambusia affinis as a bio-control agent in controlling malaria vectors, and to determine the environmental factors that it may affect the Gambusia efficiency. The Study was conducted in the irrigated agricultural project, also control trails, by Gambusia carried out in water tanks that were used by the farmers to water their cattle. The study revealed that, the use of Gambusia, at stocking rate of 5 fish/m²,in Abu Eshreen canals resulted in the reduction of both Anopheles and Culex larval population within two weeks time to zero, while in the water tanks, the reduction of mosquito larval population, in the tanks dropped to zero in the first week. However, the study revealed the pH level in both Abu Eshreens and the water tanks was with the normal range that is suitable for the survival of Gambusia fish ( 7.70-7.76 ) . The presence of back swimmers in some water tanks without Gambusia was clearly found to be had an effect on both Anopheles and Culex breeding index. The results of the study showed that, the presence of Algae benefit the survival of the mosquito larvae, and hence the survival of Gambusia affinis. The level of chlorine was found higher in the water tanks than Abu Eshreens, but both levels has no effect on Gambusia population.