Department of Meat Production

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    Effect of Substituting Roasted Sesame Seeds and Sesame Cakes on Beef Burger Characteristics.
    (University of Khartoum, 2018) Shadia Hassan Ahmed Ibrahim ; Meat Production
    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding different levels of roasted Sesame seeds and Sesame cakes on beef burger manufacture. Eight kilograms of beef meat and two kilograms Beef Fat from Bahry meat market were used. The Sesame seeds and Sesame cakes were obtained from Omdurman market. The seeds were manually screened to remove the damaged ones, and then roasted and ground. The seed cake was obtained by the oil extraction from the seeds using a local commercial electric oil extractor. Then the cake was dried, ground and kept in polyethylene bags at room temperature until utilization and analysis. Five treatments were carried out with, 0% (pure beef) control, 5% and 10% for each of the roasted Sesame seeds and Sesame cakes. The chemical composition, cooking losses, water holding capacity, pH, total bacterial count and sensory evaluation were determined. Data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance for completely randomized design by SPSS version 21- computer program. The statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences (P˂0.05) among the different levels of roasted Sesame seed and Sesame cake treatments. The chemical composition of the burgers produced were significantly different (P˂0.01). The treatments that contained roasted sesame had the highest values for fat and ash. The protein percentage increased significantly (P˂0.05) with increasing substitution level. Substitution of 10% roasted Sesame and Sesame cake improved the cooking losses. There were significant differences (p˂0.05) between IV treatments in total bacterial count. The highest total bacterial count among all treatments was reported for the 10% roasted Sesame seeds, but it decreased significantly (P˂0.05) with the 5% of the cake in the beef burger compared with the other treatments. The substitution of 10% cake has significant (P<0.05) negative effects on flavor. The tenderness was improved with the 10% roasted Sesame seed treatment. The study concluded that the 5% and 10% roasted Sesame seeds and Sesame cake constitute a good source of protein, fat and minerals when partially substituted for meat in burger formulation. It is recommended to use roasted sesame seed and sesame cake for burger processing because they contain high protein, fat and minerals. Further research is needed to study the effect of utilization of different levels of the roasted Sesame seeds and Sesame cakes in processed meat.
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    Fat Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Sudanese Goat and Lamb Carcasses at Retail outlets
    (University of Khartoum, 2018) Mayada Faroug Ibrahim Saeed ; Meat Production
    The objective of this study was to evaluate fat content and fatty acid (FA) composition of Sudanese goats and lamb at retail outlet. A total of 25 carcasses each of goats or lamb (desert ecotypes) were used in this study, of average age between 6 months to one year, reared under rangeland conditions. Samples from longissimus dorsi muscle (LD), kidney fat (KF), and subcutaneous fat (SF) were obtained from each carcass. Gas chromatography was used for quantify FAs. One-way ANOVA was used to compare differences between fat content and FA composition of each goats or lamb tissues. T test was used to compare goat and lamb fat and FAs . In goat carcasses, the fat contents were 78.21%, 73.76% and 3.6% for KF, SF and LD, respectively. The most abundant FAs were oleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. Oleic acid was higher (P≤ 0.05) in LD muscle (30.04%) than in SF (25.29%) and KF (17.86%). The stearic acid was greater (P≤ 0.05) in KF (28.04%) compared to SF (27.29%) and LD (25.37%). Palmitic acid was higher (P≤ 0.05) in KF (29.54%) than in SF (25.32) and LD (20.8%). The linoleic acid and α-linolenic acids were higher (P≤ 0.05) in muscle compared to SF and KF. The total desirable FA, which comprise stearic acid plus total unsaturated FA were greater (P≤ 0.05) in LD (72.05%), followed by SF (60.86%), and the least (50.7%) was found in KF. In lamb, the fat contents were 80.76%, 75.57%, and 4.02% for KF, SF, and LD, respectively. The most abundant FAs were oleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. The highest of oleic acid was found in LD muscle (29.2%) followed by SF (27.22%), and the least (22.12%) was found in KF. The highest of palmitic acid (30.17%) was found in KF. For stearic acid, the highest was recorded in SF (33.32%). Linoleic acid was 9.35%, 4.2%, and 1.6% for LD, SF and KF, respectively. Α-linolenic was higher (P≤ 0.05) in LD (0.7%) than in SF (0.5). The total desirable FAs were greater (P≤ 0.05) in LD (67.36%), followed by SF (65.74%), and the least (55.83%) was found in KF. Lamb had higher (P≤ 0.05) proportion of fat content, palmitic, and linoleic acid; however, goats had higher proportion of linolenic and desirable FA than lamb in LD muscle. In SF, there was no significant difference between lamb and goats in fat content. However, stearic, oleic, linoleic acid, and the desirable FA were higher in lamb than in goat. In KF, also there was no significant difference in fat content; however, goat had a higher (P≤ 0.05) percentage of linoleic acid. Nevertheless, lamb had higher (P≤ 0.05) percentage of oleic and desirable FA than goats. The Sudanese goat meat contains more nutritional beneficial FA compared to Sudanese lamb
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    Effect of Concentrate Supplementation on Reproductive and Productive Performance of the Desert Sheep (Hamari subtype) under Range Condition of Sudan
    (University of Khartoum, ) Omer Mohammed Bushara Aldouma ; Salih Ahamed Babiker Abu Salih ; Meat Production
    This work was conducted to study the effects of supplementary feeding of grazing Hamari subtype ewes on reproductive performance and their lamb growth rate, feedlot performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality.The experimental design and statistical analysis used were based on simple randomized design. The study was carried out at Um Jacko village, 20 kilometers East of Elnuhood town, West Kordofan State. Two experiments were conducted. The first experiment was carried out shortly before the breeding period. Ninety ewes similar of age 1-3 years and an average live weight range of 40 to 58 kg were divided randomly into three groups of 30 animals each. Group A was given concentrate supplement for one month before, one month after mating, and one month before lambing; group B was given the supplement for one month before mating and one month before lambing, whereas group C was kept on natural grazing only as a control group. All animals were allowed to graze on natural range consisted mainly of plants as Zorniaglockidata (Shiline), Eragrostis tremula (Banu), Aristida mutablis (Gaw), Cenchrus biflorus (Haskaneet),and Abutilon spp (El Neiada). Animals were watered every 2-3 days. The concentrate diet was offered on group base at a rate of 500 gm./ewe/day, and consisted of sorghum grains 15 %, groundnut cake 20 %, molasses 15 %, wheat bran 25 %, groundnut hullus 23 %, 1 % salt and 1 % limestone. Mature rams were introduced to ewes at the beginning of the breeding period. Reproductive parameters and mortality data were recorded. The second experiment was conducted using weaned lambs that were born to ewes in experiment 1. Thirty two ram lambs of an equal average weight of 25.75 kg and of about 6 month of age were used for a feedlot study. Lambs were randomly divided into four groups A, B, C and D according to their dam's previous feeding program in experiment 1. Each group contained eight lambs. All lambs were allowed to graze on natural pasture during the day, then given concentrate supplement of experiment 1 on ad libitum base for 60 days except group D which was left on grazing only as a control. Lambs watering was every 2-3 days. Carcass characteristics and meat chemical composition and quality were studied on five lambs form each group. The results indicated that concentrate supplementation improved reproductive traits as conception rate in the first service, lambing rate, fecundity, and prolificacy, and reduced abortion and mortality rates. Birth weight in general and that of ram lambs were heavier in concentrate supplemented ewes. Concentrate supplementation of ewes had no significant effect on pre-weaning growth rate of their lambs and ewe average daily milk yield. Feedlot performance of weaned lambs indicated that final live weight, total weight gain and daily weight gain were significantly (p<0.01) different between supplemented groups and the control. Regression coefficients between body weight and period of fattening were high in all lamb groups. The results also indicated that slaughter, hot, cold and half carcass weights and empty body weight were not significantly different among lamb groups that were finished on concentrates, but were significantly (P<0.05) heavier than those of the control group. No significant differences were found in dressing percentage between lamb groups. Only genital organs and fat depots were significantly (P<0.05) heavier in concentrate supplemented lambs than those on the control. No significant differences in whole sales cuts were found between all groups. Carcass composition showed that concentrate supplementation resulted in significant (p<0.001) increase in muscle, fat, and trim percentages than in control. Chemical composition of Longissimus dorsi muscle showed that protein and fat percentages were higher and the reverse was true for moisture in lambs finished on concentrates than in those on the control. Meat quality attributes indicated that cooking loss decreased significantly (p<0.001) while water holding capacity improved significantly (p<0.001) in meat of supplemented groups than the control. Economical appraisal of fattening lambs showed that the high cost of concentrates affected total variable costs but the high sale prices of supplemented fat lambs reflected positively on profit increase. It was concluded that concentrate supplementation of grazing before and during the breeding period enhanced ewe's reproductive attributes and that of grazing lamb's improved their production and increased their sales revenue.Thus it is recommended to adopt concentrate supplementationof ewes before and after mating to enhance their reproductive performance and of their lambs to improve their growth rate and sale revenues.
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    Evaluation of Prerigor Beef in the Manufacture of Processed Meat
    (UOFK, 2015-06-23) Hamza Ahmed Abu Groun- Salih Ahmed Babiker ; Department of Meat Production
    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of rigor state on quality attributes of prerigor processed burger to find practical solutions for the problems associated with prerigor processing. Another aim was to evaluate the effects of freezing rate on quality parameters of beef burger .Several variables were measured including cooking losses (shrinkage %) pH, juiciness, moisture content, colour and panel scores for tenderness, juiciness, flavor and colour. Results showed that prerigor beef burger produced more tender and juicy product when cooked, while frozen prerigor beef burger, although it had a higher pH value (P<0.05) resulted in more tough and dry product (P<0.05) with a higher cooking loss (P<0.05). Although post rigor beef burger had a low pII value (P<0.05) resulted in a cooked product of higher tenderness scores (P<0.05), higher juiciness and lower cooking losses (P<0.05). Acidified prerigor and post rigor beef burgers gave similar results in tenderness, juiciness, pH and cooling loss (P> 0.05). The fast .freezing rate (freezing at -40°C) in all the treatments, resulted in higher moisture contents, lower cooking losses and gave lighter products compared with the slow freezing rate (freezing at -18°C).
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    The Efficiency of Fattening Sudan Desert Lambs with Concentrates in Relation to Berseem
    (University of Khartoum, 1996) Omer Hassan Mohamed Arabi ; Ibrahim Musa Tibin ; Meat Production
    This experiment was conducted to investigate the efficiency of fattening lambs with concentrates in comparison with Medicago sativa (berseem). The work included four treatments: A, B, C and D. Ration A contained only concentrates including 35% maize, 35% cotton seed cake, 27% wheat bran, 2% calcium carbonate and 1% sodium chloride. Ration B contained 60% from the above concentrates and 40% berseem. Ration C contained 30% concentrate and 70% berseem and ration D contained berseem only. The experimental animals were 20 three months old lambs, with an average live weight of (18 ±0.6 kg). The lambs were divided into four treatment groups according to initial live weight and they were fed on the experimental ration for 98 days. The daily weight gain was significantly different (P<0.05) among dietary treatments. However, no significant difference (P>0.05) was found between the four rations regarding feed intake and feed conversion ratio. The daily feed intake on dry matter basis was 1.206, 1.143, 1.115 and 1.156 kg. Daily weight gain was 0.16, 0.151, 0.138 and 0.121 Kg. Feed conversion ratio was 7.537, 7.569, 8.339 and 9.559 for rations A, B, C and D, respectively. However, there was a significant (P<0.05) difference in final body weight and total body weight gain between treatments. The dressing percentage showed no significant difference (P>0.05) between the four treatments, even though ration D gave lower dressing percentage (49%) than A (50%), B (50%) and C (50%). The shrinkage percentage was not significantly different (P>0.05) it was 2.5%, 4.1%, 3.7% and 2.5% for rations A, B, C and D, respectively. The slaughter by-products showed no significant difference (P>0.05) between the four treatments, except the four feet which showed a significant difference (P<0.05). Carcass cuts showed no significant differences (P>0.05) except the breast. Carcass composition showed no significant differences (P>0.05) between the four treatments except the connective tissue (P<0.05) which was very low in animals of ration A. Bone content decreased with the increasing live weight while the muscles and fat presented a reverse trend. The proportion of fat: muscles and bones seemed not to be influenced by the diet fed. The chemical composition showed no significant difference (P>0.05) between the four treatments in moisture, fat, ash, crude protein and nitrogen free extract. It can be concluded that improvement of meat production under Sudan conditions in both quality arid quantity can be achieved through better feeding and management of growing lambs, because young animals can build into their muscles and skeleton a large part of protein and minerals from rations But fattening of mature animals depends mainly on the storage of fat. As a result the fattening of animals can be achieved under intensive and semi intensive system by feeding concentrates, berseem, or a mixture of both.