Department of Commercial Law

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    Rules of Conflict of Laws relating to Private Commercial Disputes
    (University of Khartoum, 2019) Mohammed Abdeen Awadelkareem Suliman
    ABSTRACT This research aimed at analyzing the relevancy between conflict of laws and international commercial transactions. It also examines the sources and nature of international commercial law as it affects private law conventions governing cross-border commercial transactions and impact of sophisticated and specialized international law-making organizations. The research selected a range of typical cross-border transactions sale, banking, securities, insolvencies and international commercial arbitration to illustrate the problems and policy issues which international law makers have to confront. The research followed an analytical and inductive approach to compare between transnational commercial law and the systems of major jurisdictions from the perspective of substantive law and private international law, which helps to explain the emergence of these new rules of conflict of laws relating to private commercial disputes and its adoption by national systems. The analysis made in this thesis is based on existing national and international rules of law as well as on modern States practices. The findings of the research show recurrent issues of harmonization that consider the future direction of transnational commercial law, with particular reference to the harmonization of general principles of private law and the practical problems obstructing progress, and also identify areas where existing private international law rules and principles may reduce clarity, certainty and predictability of outcome for cross-border transactions, commerce, investment and mobility, and identify options for law reform to overcome these issues which may improve predictability of outcome for parties in cross-border relationships and transactions, clarity, certainty, simplicity and accessibility of the law. As for recommendations, the information gathered in this research on the current legal issues arising in cross-border relationships and transactions will assist in guiding any future law reform in the area of transnational commercial transactions. مستخلص يهدف هذا البحث إلى تحليل الرابط بين قواعد القانون الدولي الخاص والمعاملات التجارية الدولية. كما يفحص مصادر وطبيعة القانون التجاري الدولي لأنه يؤثر على اتفاقيات القانون الخاص التي تحكم المعاملات التجارية عبر الحدود وتأثير المنظمات الدولية المتخصصة والمهتمة بشأن صناعة القانون. اختار البحث مجموعة من المعاملات التجارية الدولية مثل عقود البيع ، المعاملات البنكية وتعهدات السداد، عقود التمويل ، الضمانات البنكية والإفلاس الدولي و التحكيم التجاري الدولي وذلك لتوضيح الإشكالات التي تواجه صانعي القانون. اتبع البحث نهجاً استقرائيا تحليلياً مع المقارنة التحليلية لقواعد القانون التجاري الدولي وبعض الأنظمة القانونية الرائدة من ناحية القوانين الموضوعية وقواعد القانون الدولي الخاص والتي تساعد على توضيح تطور القانون التجاري الدولي وكيفية تبنيه عن طريق هذه الأنظمة القانونية. وبني التحليل في هذا البحث على قواعد القوانين الوطنية والدولية القائمة وممارسات الدول الحديثة. أظهرت نتائج البحث المواضيع المعاصرة لمسألة توحيد القوانين الدولية والإتجاهات المستقبلية للقانون التجارى الدولي مع التركيز على توحيد القواعد العامه لمبادئ القانون الخاص والمشكلات العملية التى تعيق عملية توحيد القوانين، وايضاً تحديد النطاقات المتأثرة بوجود قواعد القانون الدولي الخاص المعاصرة التى أدت بدورها الى عدم وضوح المعاملات التجارية الدولية والإستثمارات الدولية وصعوبة توقع مخرجاتها بالنسبة لأطرافها. وناقشت خيارات إعادة صياغة القوانين لتجاوز التعقيدات المذكورة بطريقة تؤدى لسهولة توقع مخرجات المعاملات لأطراف المعاملات التجارية الدولية لتصبح اكثر سهولة ووضوحاً بالنسبة للقانون الحاكم لتلك العلاقة. بالنسبة للتوصيات فإن المعلومات التي تم مناقشتها وتجميعها في هذا البحث فيما يتعلق بالمعاملات التجارية الدولية يمكن أن تسهم كمرجعية فيما يتعلق بإعادة صياغة القوانين المتعلقة بالمعاملات التجارية الدولية.
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    Universal Periodic Review and Protection of Women and Children Rights in Sudan
    (University of Khartoum, 2015) Aml Abdalla Mohammed Babiker
    Abstract Research Title: Universal Periodic Review and Protection of Women and children Rights in Sudan. Student’s Name: Aml Abdalla Mohamed Degree: LL.M This research aims at assessing the role of the United Nations Human Rights Council, with special reference to the Universal Periodic Review as new mechanism and its impact on the realization of woman and child rights in Sudan. The methodology used in this research is the comparative and analytical approach. The research analyzes the role of the Human Rights Council in the promotion and protection of human rights and compares it to its predecessor the Commission on Human Rights. Further, it analyzes the impact of the newly established mechanism of the Council, mainly the Universal Periodic Review, in enhancing the promotion and protection of women and children rights in Sudan. It concluded that, notwithstanding that the Commission on human rights has played an important role in the promotion and protection of human right all over the world, it had many challenges and shortcomings that led to the establishment of the Human Rights Council. In addition, the research concluded that, the replacement of the Commission on Human Rights with the Human Rights Council considered as step forward towards ensuring protection of Human rights especially with the creation of the Universal Periodic Review which aims at improving Human rights situation around the globe and establishing a regular monitoring and follow up measures that encourages countries to continue improving the human rights situation in their respective countries. The research also concluded that, with respect to the human rights situation in Sudan in particular woman and child’s right, the Universal Periodic Review role was not effective as expected in addressing women and children issues. Nevertheless, it has made some progress especially with regard to child rights. The research recommends that in order to make the Universal Periodic Review more effective in the promotion and protection of human rights, a national body has to be established to facilitate and monitor the implementation of the Human Rights Council Recommendations on the ground.   مستخلص عنوان البحث : آلية الاستعراض الدوري الشامل وحماية حقوق المرأة والطفل في السودان اسم الطالبة :أمل عبدالله محمد الدرجة : ماجستير القانون يهدف هذا البحث إلى تقييم الدور الذي يقوم به مجلس حقوق الانسان التابع للامم المتحدة وبالتحديد آلية الاستعراض الدوري الشامل كآلية جديدة واثرها على حقوق المرأة والطفل في السودان . المنهج المتبع في هذه الدراسة هو المنهج التحليلي المقارن، حيث تقوم الدراسة على تحليل الدور الذي يقوم به مجلس حقوق الانسان في تعزيز وحماية حقوق الانسان ومقارنته بالدور الذي لعبته سابقته مفوضية حقوق الانسان. أيضا يحلل البحث الأثر الذي تحدثه آلية الاستعراض الدوري الشامل والتي أنشأها المجلس حديثاً في تعزيز وحماية حقوق المرأة والطفل في السودان. خلص البحث إلى انه وبالرغم من الدور المهم الذي لعبته مفوضية حقوق الانسان في تعزيز وحماية حقوق الانسان في العالم إلا أنه كان لديها العديد من العيوب و التحديات والمآخذ والتي ادت في نهاية المطاف الى انشاء مجلس حقوق الانسان كبديلاً عنها. بالإضافة إلى ذلك خلص البحث إلى أن استبدال مفوضية حقوق الانسان بمجلس حقوق الانسان وبالتحديد انشاء آلية الاستعراض الدوري الشامل والتي تهدف الي تحسين اوضاع حقوق الانسان حول العالم وانشاء تدابير مراقبة ومتابعة تشجع الدول على مواصلة تحسين حقوق الانسان في دولهم ، تعتبر خطوة الى الامام في سبيل ضمان حماية حقوق الانسان . وأيضاً خلص البحث إلى انه وفيما يتعلق بأوضاع حقوق الانسان في السودان وبالأخص حقوق المرأة والطفل، أن الدور الذي لعبته آلية الاستعراض الدوري الشامل في معالجة قضايا المرأة والطفل لم يكن فعالاً كما هو متوقع، الا أنه وبالرغم من ذلك فقد احرزت الالية تقدماً وخاصة فيما يتعلق يحقوق الطفل. يوصي البحث بضرورة انشاء الية وطنية لتسهيل ومراقبة لضمان تنفيذ توصيات مجلس حقوق الانسان على ارض الواقع.
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    مدى ملاءمة القواعد المنظمة لبراءات الاختراع في جذب ونقل التكنولوجيا للدول النامية
    (University of Khartoum, 2017-01) ., هويدا سعيد عبدالله صالح باسودان
    The aim of this study is to analyze the patent protection system in the domestic legislation of the countries and the international organization, and to indicate the strong provisions mentioned in the agreements, especially the TRIPS Agreement, and its impact on attracting and transferring technology to developing countries. It also focuses on the strong shock to developing countries as a result of the lack of harmonization of the provisions of the convention for their ambition and hopes for technological progress. The researcher adopts the analytical method in explaining and analyzing the legal texts and international conventions, as well as the comparative method in stating the position of the laws of developed and developing countries and their position on the protection of patents and their suitability to the TRIPS Agreement. The study came out with several findings, the most important of which are that: the internal legislations of the countries concerned with the regulation of patents are almost identical in their general characteristics, with some differences. The system of narration in the majority of international and regional conventions is based on traditional conditions whose concepts vary from state to another. The TRIPS Agreement provided strong provisions by providing patentability for all inventions in all fields of technology without exception, and limiting the patent protection period by twenty years, thus, giving developed countries a longer period of protection for technology, which negatively affects consuming countries. Mechanisms by which technology is transferred to developing countries are ineffective for the transfer of technology, and they cannot build a strong technological base. In light of these findings, the researcher recommends developing countries to expedite the amendment of their internal laws to cope with the TRIPS Agreement and to benefit from the grace periods mentioned in the agreement. They should be concerned with patent offices and their development and the establishment of research and training centers, and be careful in purchasing technology from developed countries so as advanced technology is transferred.
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    المنظور القانوني والفقهي لأدوات التحوطِ المالي دراسةٌ تطبيقيةٌ على عقود المشتقات المالية
    (University of Khartoum, ) منجد الصَّادق محمَّد الحسين ; محمد الفاتح حامد محمد ; القانون التجاري
    This Research addresses the Financial Hedging Instruments from legal and juristic perspective with more focus on Financial Derivatives Contracts being the fundamental hedging instruments of this era. Due to the numerous and diversified Financial Derivatives Contracts, the researcher selects the most two contracts which are widely used, known and closest to the spirit of Islamic Sharia; namely, Option Contracts and Futures Contracts. In this research the researcher adopts the analytical comparative methods, as he addresses the leading legal systems in the industry of Financial Derivatives like American and English laws with glance over some Arabic laws, and he merges, where necessary, this to what have been provided for under the general and detailed rules of Islamic Sharia. The necessities of this research require the discussion of the views and stands of predecessor and successor Islamic scholars and jurists through handling their rational and literally transferred reasoning throughout their different Sunna schools and then subjecting this to analysis and comparison out of which the researcher weights what is based on accurate transfer and plain rational and also weights the balance for interests wherever it complies with the weight of Sharia. Towards achieving the goal of this research, the researcher discusses the theories pertaining to usury, gharār, qabd and damān due to their strong connectivity to the theory of contract and then he addresses the Purposive Theory (al-maqāsid) as being one of the most important Sharia resources on which this research depends. From all of these the researcher deduces the legal qualification and the Sharia stand regarding the Option Contracts and Futures Contracts. The research concludes that the Financial Hedging is a factual practical necessity had duly observed by Islamic Sharia; and Option Contracts are sales contracts whereby money is bartered against mere right having monitory value; according to this qualification, it is subject to the general conditions of the sale contracts from the Sharia and legal perspective. The researcher concluded that dealing through such contract is permissible in general while taking into consideration the vitiating and voiding elements in each case. This research also concluded that Futures Contracts are Sales Contracts wherein the receipt of the two considerations are deferred and these contracts are subject to the general conditions of sale contract from the Sharia and legal perspective; the research had concluded that dealing through such contracts is permissible in general taking into consideration the contracts vitiating and voiding elements in each case. The Researcher recommends for Sharia jurists to address the current situation with due consideration, and to apply the Purposive Approach in case of ambiguity with due observance for the Prophetic methodology in respect of transactions jurisprudence. Furthermore, the researcher recommends for the Islamic Jurisprudence Council to reconsider their fatwā in respect of Options Contract and Futures Contracts through subjecting the same for more studies by specialists in finance industry
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    Defences to Payment under Letter Of Credit and Demand Guarantee
    (University of Khartoum, ) Nahid Emad Eldeen Osman Khatir ; Mohamed Elfatih Hamid ; Commercial Law
    The object of the research is to study the defences to payment under the letter of credit and bank guarantee, and the conditions necessary for their application. Given the importance of letters of credit and bank guarantees international and domestic trade, the research will address those defences both in England and in Sudan. The research adopted the analytical and descriptive approach to identify the problems of the research clearly and precisely. The research arrived at several conclusions. On the one hand, traders rely on documentary credits and bank guarantees as modes of payment to protect themselves against risks that may arise from the underling contract. On the other hand, those two modes of payment may not provide security in all cases where the bank may not be obliged to pay, such as, for instance the documents may not conform the terms of the credit and in the cases of fraud and other cases that have been accepted as defences to payment. In light of the forgoing the research recommended that, when offering the credit, the issuing bank should make sure of the precision and accuracy of the information provided by the applicant. It must also revise and correct the exact terms and conditions of the credit. It is recommended that the issuing and confirming banks apply the exceptional cases where the bank is not obliged to pay under the letter of credit and the demand guarantee correctly in order to maintain the balance between the independence principle of he letters of credit and demand guarantees so that those two modes of payment achieve their intended goal as secure modes of payment.