Department of Physiology

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    Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Probiotic and Prebiotic on Physiological Performance and Rumen Ecology of Growing Lambs
    (University of Khartoum, 2022-03) Walieldin Elsadig Elmgboul Hamad
    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with probiotic (BIOGEN B) and prebiotic (Biolex®MB40) on growth performance, physiological responses, rumen ecology and histometric measurements of the small intestine in lambs under three different feeding regimes. Sixty three male desert lambs (Hamari ecotype, 5 month) were obtained from the local livestock market. The animals were allowed to adapt for 2 weeks. Lambs were kept in naturally ventilated, open-sided animal house. Oxytetracycline L.A 20%, Ivermectin and Albendazole were administered during the adaptation period. The study was performed at the Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum (during February 2020 to March 2021). The study was conducted in three separate experiments. The experiment was performed in a CRD. In each experiment, 21 lambs were assigned to 3 equal groups (A, B and C). In experiment I, lambs were fed roughages Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) ad libitum and concentrates (0.4 kg /animal/ day), in experiment II, roughages alfalfa (Medicago sativa) ad libitum and in experiment III, roughages alfalfa (Medicago sativa) 50% feed restricted. Group A served as a control, Whereas group B supplemented with probiotic (0.5 g /animal/ day) and Group C supplemented with prebiotic (3 g/ animal/ day). The duration of each experiment was 8 weeks. The BW and BWG were recorded every two weeks, blood samples were collected weekly. Haematological parameters assessed were PCV, Hb, TEC and TLC. plasma glucose (Gl), and serum concentrations of total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), globulins (Glo), cholesterol (Chol), urea (Ur), creatinine (Cr), ALT, AST, Na+ , K+ , Clˉ, Ca+2 and Mg+2, and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) were determined. Rumen liquor samples were collected every two weeks for monitoring pH, TVFA and NH3. Samples from duodenum, jejunum and ileum were collected at the end of each experiment for histometric measurement. SPSS V.23 was used for data analysis using one way ANOVA test. Means were separated by LSD test, P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. In experiment I, the probiotic and prebiotic groups showed (P ≤ 0.05) increases in BWG, PCV, Hb and TEC compared to the control. However, TLC was (P ≤ 0.05) higher in prebiotic group compared to both probiotic and control groups. Serum TP (P ≤ 0.05) and Alb (P≤ 0.001) were higher in probiotic group compared to the control. Probiotic group showed (P ≤ 0.001) increase in serum Alb compared to the prebiotic group. Serum Glo (P ≤ 0.05) and Ur (P≤ 0.001) were higher in prebiotic group compared to both probiotic and control groups, respectively.Serum ALT increased (P≤0.05) in probiotic group compared to the control. Meanwhile, serum AST was (P≤ 0.001) lower in probiotic and prebiotic groups compared to the control. Serum Na+ was (P≤0.01) decreased in prebiotic group compared to probiotic and control groups. Serum Clˉ was (P≤0.05) higher in probiotic group compared to control and prebiotic groups. Ruminal TVFA was (P≤0.05) higher in probiotic group compared to the control. The jejunum villus height, jejunum, and ileum crypt depth were (P≤0.001) increased in probiotic group compared to prebiotic and control groups. In experiment II, probiotic group showed (P ≤ 0.05) increase in Hb, PCV and TLC and (P ≤ 0.001) increase in TEC compared to control. Both probiotic and prebiotic groups showed (P ≤ 0.001) increase in serum TP and Glo compared to the control. Compared to the control group, probiotic group showed increase in serum Alb (P ≤ 0.05), Chol (P ≤ 0.01), AST (P≤0.001) and (P≤ 0.05) decrease in serum Ur. Probiotic group showed (P ≤ 0.05) increase in serum ALT compared to control only at week 5. Probiotic group had (P≤0.05) higher serum Na+ at weeks 3, 5 and 6 compared to the control, meanwhile, the prebiotic group showed (P≤0.05) increase compared to control only at week 4. Both probiotic and prebiotic groups showed (P≤0.05) decrease in serum K+ compared to the control. Serum Clˉ was (P≤0.05) higher in probiotic and prebiotic groups than the control at week 7. Only at week 3, the probiotic group showed (P≤0.05) increase in ruminal TVFA compared to control, which was associated with (P≤0.05) decrease in ruminal pH and NH3. The crypt depth of duodenum and jejunum increased in probiotic (P≤0.05) and prebiotic (P≤0.001) groups compared to control. The jejunum villus height increased (P≤0.05) in prebiotic group compared to the control. In experiment III, the BWG increased (P≤0.01) in probiotic group at week 6 compared to the control. meanwhile, the BW was (P≤0.05) higher in prebiotic group compared to the control. Both probiotic and prebiotic groups showed (P≤0.001) increase in Hb, PCV, TEC. TP and (P≤0.05) increase in serum Chol compared to control. Serum Alb increased in probiotic (P≤0.001) and prebiotic (P≤0.01) groups compared to the control. Serum Ur was (P≤0.05) lower in prebiotic group compared to the control. Probiotic group showed (P≤0.05) decrease in ALT and AST compared to the control, meanwhile, serum ALT was only (P≤0.001) lower in prebiotic group compared to the control. Serum K+ was (P≤0.001) lower in both probiotic and prebiotic group compared to the control. However, serum Ca+2 was (P≤0.001) decreased in prebiotic group compared to both probiotic and control groups. The Mg+2 was (P≤0.05) higher in probiotic group compared to the prebiotic and the control groups. The ruminal TVFA increased (P≤0.001) in probiotic group compared to both prebiotic and control groups. The prebiotic one showed (P≤0.05) increase in TVFA at day 7, which was associated with (P≤0.05) decrease in ruminal NH3 compared to the control. Both probiotic and prebiotic groups showed (P≤0.001) increase in the jejunum villus height compared to the control. The study concluded that supplementation of probiotic and prebiotic to lambs diet induced positive effects on growth performance, significant increase in Hb, PCV, TEC, TLC, TP, Alb, Glo, Chol, Na+ and Clˉ and significant decrease in ALT, AST, Ur and K+ . There was significant increase in ruminal TVFA and positive effects on villus height and crypt depth of small intestine. The findings indicate interaction between probiotic and prebiotic supplementation and different types of feeding regime. Therefore, the study recommends that probiotic and prebiotic supplementation could be used to promote growth performance and immunity in lambs during different feeding regimes.
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    Effects of Selenium and Vitamin E Injection During Transition period on Physiological Performance of Camels (Camelus dromedarius) and their Neonates Reared Under Semi- intensive System
    (University of Khartoum, ) Abdalrhman, Mona Hassan Ahmed ; Nawal Mohamed Elkhair Fadel Elmawla ; Physiology
    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of selenium (Se) and vitamin E (Se + Vit E) injection during transition period on the physiological performance of dromedary camels and their neonates reared under semi- intensive system. The study was conducted during the period December 2013 to January 2015. Fourty clinically healthy camels (20 pregnant females of three local breed: Arabi, Kenani and Deali, age 7-11year, number of parities: 2-3. and 20 neonate camels) were used. The animals belonged to Camel Research Centre, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum. The Animals were maintained on grazing and browsing trees and shrubs in the vicinity of the camel Centre and occasionally received concentrate supplements and roughages with free access to fresh water. Time mated pregnant camels were divided into 2 equal groups (10 each), as control and treated group. The treated group was injected intramuscularly with 10 ml of a combination of Se and Vit E (0.6 mg/ml of sodium selenite and 80 mg/ml of vitamin E acetate, LABORATORIOS CALIER, Spain) three times: one month before parturition, at parturition and one month postpartum. The neonate camels were divided into 2 equal groups (10 each), group A represented neonates born from the control mothers and group B represented neonates born from the injected mothers. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein three times: one month before parturition, at parturition and one month postpartum for the pregnant females and for their neonates at birth, day 7; then after 1, 2 and 3 months of age. Blood and serum samples were used to determine the haematological and biochemical parameters as well as hormones profile. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows version 20.0. ANOVA tests were used to assess the significant differences between the groups. In Experiment 1, the changes in haematological, serum biochemical parameters and hormones profile (thyroid hormones and cortisol) in response to the Se + Vit E injection and transition period were observed in female dromedary camels. Injection of Se + Vit E during transition period caused a significant (P˂ 0.05) increase in haematocrit (Hct); however, the increase was not significant for haemoglobin (Hb) and total erythrocytes count (TEC), total leukocytes count (TLC) and differential leukocytes count (DLC). Serum proteins parameters (total proteins, albumin and globulins) increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in injected mothers. Injection of Se + Vit E during transition period caused a significant (P≤ 0.05) increase in serum- [Na+], [K+], [Clˉ], [Ca++] and [Pi]. Injection of Se + Vit E caused non significant increase in T4 levels with no effect on T3 levels. However, cortisol levels decreased in injected mothers. A significant (P˂0.05) increase in colostrum (48 hr postpartum) and milk production (6 months postpartum) observed in response to the intramuscular injection of Se + Vit E. Injection of Se + Vit E during transition period reduced the percentage of clinical mastitis (80% for control group and 30% for injected group). The transition period had no significant effects on the haematological, biochemical parameters and thyroid hormones and cortisol levels; however, fluctuations on thyroid hormones have been observed. In Experiment 2, the effects of Se + Vit E injection during transition period on growth performance, health status, haematological and biochemical parameters, thyroid hormones profile and cortisol levels of neonate camels as well as the effect of age were investigated. Injection of Se + Vit E during transition period resulted in a significant (P≤0.05) increase in BW (at birth until 3 months) and body weight gain (BWG) of neonate camels. Neither diarrhoea nor dermatophytosis or ring worm was observed in neonate camels born from injected mothers. In contrast the percentage of diarrhoea and dermatophytosis were 20% and 50% respectively in neonates born from control mothers. Neonate´s mortality rate reduced to 0% in neonates born from the injected mothers compared with 30% in neonates born from the control mothers. Intramuscular injection of Se +Vit E during transition period had no significant effect on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of neonate camels, except for [Pi], which increase significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Neonate camels born from the injected mothers showed a significant (P ˂0.01) increase in T4 levels; however, T3 levels tended to increase non significantly. Serum cortisol level did not change significantly in both neonates' groups. A positive correlation (P ˂0.001) was observed between the age of the neonate camels and BW, whereas the correlation (P ≤ 0.05) was negative for haematological parameters, total protein, globulins, [K+], [Cl-] and T3 and T4. It was concluded that intramuscular injection of 10 ml Se +Vit E (0.6 mg/ml of sodium selenite and 80 mg/ml of vitamin E acetate) during transition period improved the physiological performance, health status, colostrum and milk production and BWG of neonate camels by enhancing the antioxidants status of female camels and their neonates. The data obtained in the present study can be utilized to improve health and productivity of female camels during the critical periods (transition and postnatal periods), which associated with physiological oxidative stress; ultimately the mentioned improvement could be reflected positively on the national camel herd growth in Sudan.
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    Physiological Responses to Heat Stress and Their Modifications by Acclimatization: A Comparison of Natural And Experimental Conditions
    (University of Khartoum, 2015-06-23) Nabil Ibrahim Tanios
    Broilers and laying hens of two breeds namely Tetra and Rhode Island Red were used to investigate some physiological responses to heat stress and their modifications by acclimatization. Laying hens exposed to intermittent high ambient temperature of 42oC brought about haemoconcentration during the initial heat intolerance phase. The intravascular water loss was accompanied by an increase of RBCs count, PCV, Hb concentration, plasma protein concentration, colloid osmotic pressure and a decrease in RBCs size. Transfer of laying hens to the residential temperature of 25oC, the pattern was reversed. Acclimatization was evident in all hens after 4 d. Heat tolerance phase of laying hens was characterised by haemodilution. Broilers reared for 8 weeks at high constant temperature (35oC) showed acclamatory haemodilution when compared with broilers reared at ambient temperature of 25oC. Intravascular water gain in both breeds was accompanied by decrease of the above mentioned parameters. Rhode Island Red and Tetra laying hens exposed to one of the following temperature regimes, intermittent (natural or high) and constant, showed no breed difference in tritiated water space and water turnover. Tritiated water space was maximum at the constant temperature when compared with other regimes. The shortest half-life (t½) for tritiated water space (highest water turnover) was observed in laying hens exposed to intermittent high temperature, while the longest t½ (lowest water turnover) was noted in laying hens reared under constant temperature. The initial exposure to intermittent high ambient temperate of 42oC brought about a considerable increase in the level of amylase activity in the duodenum and jejunum of the laying hens and only in the duodenum of broilers. The levels of amylase in the distal parts of the intestine of both breeds sharply decreased. The increase in amylase levels vanished after 3 days and onwards. The pancreatic level of amylase was reversibly related to the levels in the intestine. The response of maltase activity to heat stress and heat acclimation was insignificant.
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    Effects Of Thermal Environment, Pregnancy And Level Of Production On Thermoregulation, Blood Constituents And Endocrine Responses In Crossbred Dairy Cows
    (UOFK, 2015-04-18) Omer, Ahmed ; Dr. Abdalla. M. Abdelatif ; Physiology
    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of seasonal changes in thermal environment and pregnancy on the physiological responses of crossbred dairy cows (Butana x Friesian). Also, it was intended to examine the nycthermal changes in physiological parameters in highand low producing cows under local tropical conditions. In experiment 1, crossbred multiparous dairy cows were divided into four groups according to reproductive state (empty, early, mid and late pregnancy). The cows were exposed to a normal grazing programme under natural summer and winter conditions. The rectal temperature (Tr) and respiratory rate (RR) were significantlyhigher during summer than during at different stages of pregnancy; there was an increase in Tr and RR with the advance of pregnancy. The packedcell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin concentration (Hb) were significantly higher in summer; however, both parameters decreased in late pregnancy. The cows had higher total leukocyte count (TLC) in winter only during early pregnancy. The TLC was significantly higher in winter comparedto the respective summer value in early pregnancy. For all experimentalgroups serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and urea were significantly higher during summer than winter. Plasma glucose levels decreased with the advance of pregnancy. There was a tendency for decrease in triglyceride level with the advance of pregnancy. The urea level tended to behigher during early pregnancy in both seasons. The activity of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was higher, while alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was lower in empty group and late pregnancy during summer than during winter. The ALT activity increased significantly with the advance of pregnancy and the AST level was iv significantly higher during late pregnancy in both seasons. Serum calcium (Ca) level was higher in the empty group and mid pregnancy and serum phosphorus (P) level was lower in all experimental groups during summer. There was a decrease in Ca level and an increase in P level with advance of pregnancy. Serum magnesium (Mg) level was significantly higher during winter in empty and early pregnancy.Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was elevated in summer than in winter. Serum triiodothyronine (T3) was higher in summer, and there was slight decrease with the advance of pregnancy in both seasons. Serum thyroxine (T4) was lower in summer in all groups. Serum cortisol increased in response to summer heat load, and was higher during late pregnancy in both seasons. In experiment 2, twelve crossbred (Butana x Friesian) empty multiparous dairy cows were selected and divided into two groups (high and low producing dairy cows). The nycthermal changes in physiological parameters were monitored for 48 hours. Rectal temperature (Tr ) increased in the afternoon (12:00 p.m.) in both groups. The high producing cows maintained higher Trvalues during the course ofthe study. Respiratory rate (RR) was increased the afternoon in both groups of cows; the high producing cows maintained higher RR values than low producing cows. Heamatocrit and Hb concentration were slightly higher in high producing cows than in low producing cows. Serum levels of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides showed no significant diurnal variation in both groups of cows. Serum urea concentration showed relative instability in both experimental groups. Serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and urea were lower in high producing cows than inthe low producing cows.AST and ALT showed irregular diurnal variation in the both high and low producing cows. The high v producing cows maintained slightly higher aminotransferase enzymes activity. Serum cortisol level was higher at 12:00 p.m and 6:00 p.m. compared to values monitored in the morning (6:00 a.m.) and night (12:00 p.m). The cortisol level was higher in high producing cows than in low producing cows. Serum insulin level did not reveal significant diurnal variation in both groups of cows. Highproducing cows maintained higher serum insulin level than in the low producing cows. The results indicated that under local tropical conditions when the temperature humidity index (THI) exceeds 75 during summer, dairy cows were exposed to heat stress conditions which affect thermoregulatory response, serum metabolite level and endocrine responses that could impact negatively productivity and reporoductivity performance. The stage of pregnancy had significant influence onthermoregulation, erythrocytic parameters, serum levels of Ca, P and cortisol. The nycthermal effect did not influence most of the parameters, because there was no critical change in climatic conditions during the course of the study. High milk yield influenced thermoregulation, blood constituents and endocrine responses.
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    Effects of Dietary Zinc and Ascorbic Acid Supplementation and Thermal Environment on Physiological Responses and Performance of Ross Broilers Chicks
    (UOFK, 2015-04-15) Mahmmoud, Amier ; Dr. Abdalla M. Abdelatif ; Physiology
    The studies reported in this thesis were performed to investigate the effect of dietary zinc and ascorbic acid supplementation and thermal environment on physiological responses and performance of broilers. In experiment 1, the effects of dietary (ZnSO4) levels 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg on physiological responses and performance were investigated in unsexed broiler chicks. The rectal temperature (Tr ) was not affected significantly by zinc level in the diet; Tr decreased with increase in age. The feed intake, body weight (BW) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) increased significantly in broilers receiving different levels of ZnSO4compared to the control. The packed cell volume (PCV) increased significantly with all levels of Zn supplementation and at all stagesof growth. The plasma glucose level decreased significantly in broilers withall levels of Zn supplementation and at all stages of growth. The serum cholesterol level decreased significantly in broilers with all levels of Zn supplementation and at all stages of growth, and it decreased with advance of age. The serum levels of total protein and albumin were higher with all levels of Zn supplementation and at all stages of growth, and increased with advance of age. The serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferas (AST) decreased significantly in broilers with Zn supplementation and at all stages of growth. The serum Zn level increased significantly with all levels of Zn supplemented and at 4 th and 5 th week of age. In experiment 2, the effects of dietary supplementation of ZnSO4(50 mg/kg) and ascorbic acid (AA) (600 mg/kg) or their combination on physiological responses and performance ii were investigated in unsexed broilersduring summer and winter conditions. The rectal temperature (Tr ) was not affected significantly by dietary Zn and AA supplementation or their combination during summer and winter conditions. Tr of control groups of broilers was significantly higher during summer compared to winter values at all stages of growth. The effects of Zn and AA or their combination on feed intake, BW and FCR were not significant throughout the experimentalperiod. The mean values of feed intake, BW and FCR were significantly higher during winter at all stages of growth. The PCV was not affected significantly by Zn and AA or their combination during the course of experiment. The PCV of control groups was significantly higher during winterat all stages of growth. There was significant decrease in plasma glucose level with all treatments at the 4 th and 5 th weeks of age during summer, and a significant decrease in plasma glucose level in all treated experimental groups at the 4 th week of age during winter. At the 5 th and 6 th week of age, the plasma glucose level significantly decreased for broilers supplemented withcombination of AA and Zn during winter. The serum cholesterol level decreased significantly with all treatments at the 5 th week of age during summer; it also decreased significantly at the 4 th and 6 th weeks of age in all treatments during winter. The serum total protein level increased significantly with all treatments at all stages of growth during summer; also it increased significantly in all treated groups at the 2 nd , 4 th and 6 th weeks of age during winter. The serum albumin level increased significantly for broilers supplemented with AA at the 6 th week of age during summer, and it increased significantly with all treatments iii at the 4 th , 5 th and 6 th week of age during winter. The serum AST level decreased significantly with all treatments at all stages of growth during summer. Also it decreased significantly with all treatments at the 2 nd , 4 th and 6 th weeks of age during winter. The serum ALT level decreased significantly with all treatment groups at all stages of growth during summer. During winter, ALT level decreased significantly with all treatments at all stages of growth. The results which were related to thermoregulation and nutritional strategies adopted for alleviation of thermal stress in broilers were discussed in the light of previous findings reported in literature. The findings of the studies could have implications in improving the growth performance of broilers under tropical conditions.