Department of Biochemistry

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    Effects of Protein-rich Fraction of Gum Arabic Against Sodium Valproate- induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats
    (University of Khartoum, 2013-04) Afaf Mohamed Abdulla Gawish
    Effects of Protein-rich Fraction of Gum Arabic Against Sodium Valproate- induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats M.Sc. in Biochemistry Afaf Mohamed Abdulla Gawish Abstract: About 50 million people worldwide have epilepsy, and nearly 90% of epilepsy occurs in the developing countries. The mainstay of treatment of epilepsy is lifelong administration of anticonvulsant medications that can have major effects on the quality of life. Currently, there are 20 medications, approved by the Food and Drug Administration, for treatment of epileptic seizures in the US, one of them is Valproic acid but strong concern is its potential to cause sudden and severe, possibly fatal, liver impairments. Gum Arabic has been shown by several workers to have ameliorating effects on drug- induced hepatotoxicity. This study was carried out as a preliminary trial to investigate which constituent of Gum Arabic contributes to its hepatoprotective effect. Accordingly, manual fractionation of crude Gum Arabic was done. A protein-rich fraction of Gum Arabic was used, on its own (0.5g/kg) and in combination with Valproate (2ml/kg) in drinking water, for 20 male rats in four equal groups, once a day for 45 days. Blood samples were collected before treatment and thereafter, at two weeks intervals at day 15, 30 and 45. Four groups of rats were used. Group A received rich protein fraction plus Valproate. Group B received the protein-rich fraction only, Group C received water and Group D received Valproate alone. Assessment of liver function was followed by measuring liver transaminases and alkaline phosphatase together with estimation of total Bilirubin in blood. The comparison between groups showed significant results in reducing the trasnsaminase enzymes reaching (P<0.0001) for ALT serum level, ALP also recorded significant changes between the groups that reached maximum at day 45 (P<0.0001) Estimation of total Bilirubin showed a great decrease in the group that received protein-rich fraction of Gum Arabic in combination with Valproate compared with group that received Valproate alone. It is concluded that the supplementation of protein-rich fraction of Gum Arabic reduces hepatotoxicity that occurs as a side effect of a prolonged use of Valproate. يعاني حوالى50 مليون شخص في العالم من مرض الصرع، 90% منهم فى الدول الناميه إن العلاج الأساسي لمرض الصرع هي أدوية مضادة لنوبات الصرع والتي تؤخذ مدى الحياة لذلك يكون لها تأثيرات رئيسية على نوعية الحياة ويوجد حاليا 20دواء تمت الموافقة عليها من قبل إدارة الغذاء والدواء في الولايات المتحدة لمعالجة نوبات الصرع .أحد هذه الأدوية هي حامض الفالبرويك ، ولكن يوجد كثير من القلق ازاء استعماله وذلك لمقدرته المفاجئة والحادة لإضطراب الكبد وربما القاتلة.توصل عدد العاملين في هذا المجال الى ان للصمغ العربي تأثير في تخفيف سمية الكبد الناتجة عن الفالبوريت. هذه الدراسة تجربه أوليه لتحديد الجزئية من الصمغ العربي التي تساهم في حماية الكبد ، وإعتماداً على هذا تمت تجزئة الصمغ العربى بطريقه يدوية وأستخدم الجزء الغني بالبروتين منه على 20 من الفئران المقسمه ار بعه مجموعات متساويه، بإضافته في ماء الشرب لمدة 45يوم كعلاج مزدوج مع الفالبوريت. تم جمع عينات الدم قبل العلاج وبعد ذلك بأسبوعين في اليوم 15و30و45، وذلك لتقييم وظائف الكبد من خلال قياس إنزيمات الترانسامينات والالكلاين فوسفاتيز بالإضافه لتقدير البليروبين الكلي .وقد تلقت المجموعه (أ) الجزء الغنى بالبروتين من الصمغ العربى بالإضافه للفالبرويت و تلقت المجموعة(ب) جزء البروتين فقط والمجموعة (ج) تلقت الماء فقط و المجموعة(د) تلقت الفالبريت فقط. وأظهرت المقارنة بين المجموعات نتائج مقنعه في انخفاض قيم إنزيمات الترانسامينيز ووصلت إلى نفس القيمه للفوسفتايز كما بلغ مستوى البليروبين إنخافضا ملحوظا فى المجموعه (أ) مقارنة بالمجموعه (د). الخلاصه أن الجزء الغنى بالبروتين من الصمغ العربي يخفض سمية الكبد الناتجة عن الإستعمال طويل المدى للفالبوريت
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    Effect of Olea europaea L. (Olive) Leaves Aqueous Extract on Serum Lipids, Growth Performance and Abdominal Fat Deposition in Ross-308 Broiler Chickens
    (University of Khartoum, 2021) Yasmin Salah Ahmed Mohammed
    Abstract: Excessive fat deposition in poultry adversely affect poultry production and consumers health, olive leaf extract is a rich source of phenolic compounds, which have been shown to have wide ranges of health benefits. The use of olive leaves extract to reduce excessive fat in poultry remains scarce. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of Olea europaea L leaves aqueous extract (OLE) on serum lipids, growth performance and abdominal fat deposition in Ross 308 broiler chickens. The study was carried out for a rearing period of 6 weeks in semi-closed system at Poultry Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum; in winter season from (December to February, 2020). Dry olive leaves were purchased from local supplier (Soug Omdurman).The birds were offered OLE per liter of water at various levels (0.05%, 0.10%, 0. 15 %). A total of 160 unsexed one-day old broiler chicks (Ross-308 strain) were distributed by using complete randomize design (CRD) to 16 cages, with 4 experimental treatments, each treatment included 4 replicates having 10 birds each per pen. Newcastle and Gumboro disease vaccines were administered in drinking water at days 11 and 15 of age, respectively. All birds were given the same basal diet. The control group was given drinking water without olive leaves extract 0%, while other experimental groups were given drinking water with OLE at levels of 0.05%, 0.10% and 0.15% respectively. On the end of week 4 and week 6 of age, blood samples were randomly collected from 2 birds per replicate. Serum lipids triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) were measured. IV Body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded on weekly basis during the experimental period. Abdominal fat depositions were collected at the end of the experimental period (week 6) for determination of the weights. The SAS V.9 was used for data analysis using ANOVA. Means were separated by Duncan’s Multiples Range test; P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. At week 4 of age, the study indicated highly significant (P ≤ 0.001) decrease in serum TG in birds offered OLE at level of 0.05%, 0.10% and 0.15% compared to control. The serum TC was insignificantly decreased in birds offered OLE at level 0.15% compared to the control group. There was numerical increase in serum HDL and numerical decreased in LDL in birds offered 0.15%OLE on week 4 of age compared to the control group. At week 6 TG, TC and LDL, were numerically decreased in birds offered 0.15%OLE compared to the control group, whereas HDL was higher in birds offered 0.10%OLE compared to the control. The results of growth performance revealed linear increase in BW in all experimental groups, but in rate less than of control group. There was increase in BWG in birds offered 0.15%OLE at 6th week of age compared to control group. Numerically highest FCR was recorded in birds offered 0.15%OLE at the 5thweek of age compared to the control group. There were decreases in the daily FI; where all birds offered OLE recorded lower FI compared with control group. There were significant decrease in the abdominal fat deposition; the abdominal fat deposition% was lower in broilers that offered 0.10%, 0.05% and 0.15%OLE respectively compared to control group. It was concluded that supplementation of OLE in broilers drinking water reduce plasma TG, TC, LDL and increase HDL. No significant effect of OLE on growth performance, but significant reduction in abdominal fat deposition observed. The results indicate that OLE was effective in the regulation of lipid metabolism that can prevent atherosclerosis and coronary heart diseases in consumers.
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    Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Faidherbia albida (Haraz) Pods Powder on Growth Performance and Blood Metabolites of Broiler Chickens
    (University of Khartoum, 2021-03) Mehad Ibrahim Abdallah Omer
    Abstract: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of dietary Inclusion of Faidherbia albida pods powder on growth performance traits and some blood metabolites in broilers chicks. The F. albida pods was collected from trees in, Elshigailab area Khartoum State during summer season .The study were conducted at the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Khartoum. A total of 160 one – day - old unsexed chicks (Ross 308 strain) were used Chicks were kept in a semi-closed housing system. Newcastle and Infection bursal disease vaccines were administered in drinking water on days 11 and 15 of age, respectively. Birds were distributed randomly into 4 dietary treatment groups with 2 replicates (10 birds per replicate) in a complete randomized design and randomly allotted to four rations (A, B, C and D) approximately isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Ration A served as a control and was composed of basal diet without F. albida, while rations B, C and D contained F.albida at the levels of 10, 20 and 30%, respectively. The basal diet contained sorghum, groundnut meal and concentrate. Chickens were allowed to feed ad libitum, for an experimental period of 5 weeks. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured weekly. Blood samples were randomly collected from chickens of all groups at weeks 4 and 6, from 2 bird/replicate. Parameters assessed were serum levels of a total protein, albumin (alb), triacylglycerol (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein and LDL. Statistical analyses system (SAS version .9) was used for data analysis using ANOVA test. Means were separated according to Duncan's multiple range test; Significant was accepted at P≤0.05.The proximate analysis of F.albida showed that the crude protein content was 12.25% and fat 1.13%. The results revealed a numerical increase in body weight in birds with inclusion of 10%, 20% and 30% F. albida compared to the control. The BWG revealed a significant increase P≤0.05 in birds with 10% of F.albida at week 4 and a highly significant increase (P≤0.01) in birds with 20% F.albida at week 5 compared to the control group. The FI showed a significant increase (P≤0.05) in birds with 20% F. albida at week 4 and a significant increase (P≤0.05) in birds with 30% F. albida at week 5 compared to the control. The FCR reflected a significant increase (P≤0.05) in birds with 30% F. albida at week 1 compared to the control group. Regarding metabolites, there was a numerical increase in serum total protein at weeks 4and 6 as compared to the control group. With respect to serum alb, there was a highly significant decrease in chickens with 20% F. albida (P≤0.01) and 30% F. albida (P≤0.05) as compared to the control group at week 4, TAG showed a high significant increase (P≤0.01) of with 10% F. albida and 20% F. albida and a significant increase (P≤0.05) with 30% F. albida of as compared to the control group. There was a non- significant decrease in serum TC of chickens at weeks 4 and 6. For HDL at week 6, there was a significant decrease (P≤0.05) with 30% F. albida compared to the control group. For LDL at week 6 , There was a significant decrease (P≤0.05) due to inclusion of 10% F. albida compared to the control group. Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that inclusion of 20% F. albida Pods powder in the chicken diet produced significant effect on growth performance as well as decrease in LDL and increase in HDL. Further studies are recommended on the effect of different parts of the F. albida on the nutrition of broilers. المستخلص: هدفت هذه الدراسة لتقويم أثر إضافة مسحوق قرون الحراز للغذاء علي خصائص أداء النمو وبعض مستقلبات الدم تم جمع قرون الحراز من الشقيلاب ولاية الخرطوم في فصل الصيف. أجريت الدراسة في قسم الكيمياء الحيوية كلية الطب البيطري جامعة الخرطوم. تم إستخدام 160 كتكوت عمر يوم غير مجنس (سلالة روس 308) من شركة إنماء لتربية الدواجن. تمت رعاية الكتاكيت تحت النظام شبه المغلق. لقاحات مرض النيوكسل ومرض الجمبورو وضعت في مياه الشرب في الايام 11، 15 من العمر علي التوالي. تم توزيع الكتاكيت عشوائياً لأربع معاملات بمعدل2 تكرار (10 كتكوت لكل تكرار) بإستخدام النظام العشوائي الكامل. وزعت الكتاكيت عشوائياً إلي أربعة علائق متساوية تقريباً في مستوي البروتين والطاقة (ا، ب، ج، د). العليقه الشاهد (أ) ولا تحتوي علي مسحوق قرون الحراز. بينما العلائق ب، ج، د مضاف إليها مسحوق قرون الحراز بمستويات 10%، 20% و30% علي التوالي. قدمت هذه العلائق إلي حد الشبع. تم تكوين العليقه من الذرة الرفيعة، أمباز الفول السوداني والمركزات. إستمرت الدراسة لمدة5 أسابيع، تم قياس وزن الجسم، والوزن المكتسب، إستهلاك العلف وتحديد معدل التحول الغذائي إسبوعياً. في الإسبوعين الرابع والسادس من العم، تم أخذ عينات الدم عشوائياً من عدد 2 من الطيور من كل تكرار. تم إستعمال مصل الدم لقياس كل من البروتين الكلي، الالبيومين، ثلاثي الغلسريد، الكوليسترول الكلي، البروتينات الدهنية عالية الكثافة والبروتينات الدهنية منخفضة الكثافة. تم إستخدام نظام التحليل الاحصائي ( (SASالنسخة 9 لتحليل البيانات بإستعمال إختبار ANOVA تم الفصل بين المتوسطات باستعمال إختبار دنكن ذو المدي المتعدد; أعتمدت المعنوية عند مستوي P≤0.05. أظهرت نتائج تحليل نبات الحراز أن محتوي البروتين12.25% والدهون 1.13% . أظهرت النتائج عدم زيادة معنوية في وزن جسم الطيور المضاف إلي غذائها الحراز بنسبة 10%، 20% و30% مقارنة مع الشاهد. وزن الجسم المكتسب أظهر زيادة معنوية (P≤0.05) في الطيور المعاملة بتركيز 10% من الحراز في الإسبوع الرابع وزيادة معنوية عالية P≤.0.01)) في الطيور المعاملة بتركيز 20% من الحراز في الإسبوع الخامس مقارنة مع الشاهد. وزيادة معنوية في إستهلاك الغذاء P≤0.05)) في الطيور المضاف إلي غذائها 20% من الحراز في الاسبوع الرابع ، زيادة معنوية P≤0.05)) في الطيور المضاف الي غذائها 30% من الحراز في الاسبوع الخامس مقارنة مع الشاهد. أوضحت النتاىج زيادة معنوية P≤0.05)) في معدل التحول الغذاىي في الطيور المضاف الي غذاىها 30% من الحراز في الاسبوع الأول مقارنة مع الشاهد. بالنسبة لمستقلبات الدم بخصوص البروتين الكلي، حدثت زيادة غير معنوية في الاسبوعين الرابع والسادس مقارنة مع الشاهد. الألبيومين أظهر نقصانا معنويا مع التركيز 20% P≤0.05)) و30% من الحراز P≤0.05)) في الإسبوع الرابع مقارنة مع الشاهد. بينما ثلاثي الغلسريد في الاسبوع السادس رصدت زيادة معنوية عالية P≤.0.01)) مع تركيزي 10% ،20% حراز وزيادة معنوية P≤0.05)) مع التركيز 30% مقارنة مع الشاهد. حدث نقصان غير معنوي في الكوليسترول الكلي في الاسبوع الرابع والسادس مع كل تراكيز الحراز مقارنة مع الشاهد. أظهرت البروتينات الدهنية عالية الكثافة HDL) ) نقصانا معنويا P≤0.05)) في الاسبوع السادس مع تركيز 30% من الحرازمقارنة مع الشاهد .البروتينات الدهنية منخفضة الكثافة (LDL) حدث لها نقصان معنوي P≤0.05)) في الاسبوع السادس مع تركيز 10% من الحراز مقارنة مع الشاهد .خلصت هذه الدراسة الي أن اضافة 20% من مسحوق قرون الحراز نتج عنه تأثير معنوي في أداء النمو بالاضافة الي انخفاض البروتينات الدهنية منخفضة الكثافة(LDL) وزيادة البروتينات الدهنية عالية الكثافة. توصي الدراسة باجراء أبحاث اكثر علي الأثر التغذوي للأجزاء المختلفة لنبات الحراز علي الدجاج اللاحم.
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    Hypoglycemic Effect of Crude Water Extract of Abelmoschus esculentus ( Okra) Fruits on Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Wistar Albino Rats
    (University of Khartoum, 2019) Mahassin Rahmatalla Gubartalla Osman
    ABSTRACT Natural remedies from plants are considered to be an effective and safe alternative treatment for different diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-diabetic effect of the crude water extract of Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra). This study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum in April 2018. The rats were brought from the animal house- Faculty of Veterinary Medicine– University of Khartoum , kept in cages and were supplied with a diet composed of wheat flour (692)g, dry beef meat (165)g, sodium chloride (3)g and oil (140)g in each kg ,that a diet according to National Research Council (NRC,.1996). Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) was collected from local market in Khartoum city. The crude water extract were prepared fresh each day by taking 15 g of fresh fruits of Abelmoschus esculentus, the fruits were washed , both ends were cut placed overnight in 250 ml clean drinking water , the fruits will be removed and the crude water extract were put into test tube . The study was performed by monitoring the plasma glucose levels in diabetic rats treated with A. esculentus and the Glucose tolerance test was monitored by the end of the experiment. The experiment extended for three weeks. A complete randomized block designs was used to detect the significant interactions between means, so the data obtained was subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) using statistical analysis system (SAS) version 9 program .Diabetes was induced in the Wistar albino rats by intraperitoneal injection of Alloxan monohydrate (60mg/kg body weight). Forty rats were used in the present work and divided into four groups A , B , C and D , 10 rats in each Group. Group A was a control group, Group B served as diabetic control, Group C was diabetic and treated with metformine (10 mg/kg) and Group D was diabetic and treated with 2ml of crude water extract of A.esculentus per day for each rat. One ml blood samples were collected from the retro-orbital plexus of rats. The plasma glucose levels were measured for all rats on day zero and at day 3, after overnight fasting, to check the induction of diabetes. The level of plasma glucose was determined at days 0, 7, 14 and 21 after applying the different treatments. The results showed significantly (P≤0.05) lower level of plasma glucose in the treated groups C and D, the levels were 157.85 +4.12 mg /dl and 119 ±2.43 mg /dl in groups C and D, respectively when compared to positive control rats B of 230.75 +2.33 mg /dl. At day 21 GTT was performed for all groups; significantly (P≤0.05) lower level of plasma glucose in Group D (96.33 +22.04 mg /dl) was observed which was similar to normal control rats at the end of 4 hr compared to groups B and D. This result indicated that group D showed higher blood glucose uptake compared to groups B and C. This experiment showed that A. esculentus water extract has effect on the lowering of high blood glucose level and it increases blood glucose uptake. It could be used to control hyperglycemia in humans, and it is a promising anti-diabetic agent.
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    Effect of Methanolic Extract of Punicagranatum(Pomegranate) Peels on Liver Functionsin Wistar Albino Rats
    (University of Khartoum, 2019) Ebtehal Alsawi Hassan Salih
    Abstract: P. granatum is commonly used as natural remedy for treatment of several diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased doses of P. granatum on normal liver functions. The study was performed by measuring the levels of liver enzymes, Alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and also the serum total protein, albumin and total globulins. The work was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Khartoum. Pomegranate were obtained from fruit local marketing in Khartoum city. The peels were separated manually from the fruit and were dried at room temperature. The peels were extracted by maceration in methanol for three days . The extract was filtered and evaporated to dryness at room temperature .The rats were divided into four groups, (A, B, C and D), 10 rats each. Group A was kept as control group. Groups B, C and D received methanolic extract of pomegranate peels in different doses, low (200 mg/kg), medium (400 mg/kg) and high( 600 mg/kg) ,respectively for 30 days by oral. Blood samples were collected at days zero,15 and 30. A complete randomized block designs was used to detect the significant interactions between means, so the data obtained was subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) using statistical analysis system ( SAS) version 9 vi program The results revealed, significantly (p≤0.05) lower plasma level of AST in groups B,C and D (63.91±3.51) ,(72.17±5.13) , (82.7±6.17) respectively as compared to the control group (103.34 ± 3.84). ALT showed significant (p≤0.05) decrease in the levels of groups B,C and D, (22.43±0.94), (22.43±2.81) , (26.34±2.81) respectively as compared to the control group (107.82±1.94). At day 30 the result showed no significant differences. The levels of total protein, albumin, globulins and the enzyme ALP showed no significant differences between the tested groups. The results in the present work revealed that, the effect of increasing three doses of P. granatum used in this study are safe and non toxic. This study recommends that P. granatum can be used for the treatment of hepatic failure, when the liver injury caused by exposure to harmful chemical substances.