Department of Biochemistry

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    Hypoglycemic Effect of Crude Water Extract of Abelmoschus esculentus ( Okra) Fruits on Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Wistar Albino Rats
    (University of Khartoum, 2019) Mahassin Rahmatalla Gubartalla Osman
    ABSTRACT Natural remedies from plants are considered to be an effective and safe alternative treatment for different diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-diabetic effect of the crude water extract of Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra). This study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum in April 2018. The rats were brought from the animal house- Faculty of Veterinary Medicine– University of Khartoum , kept in cages and were supplied with a diet composed of wheat flour (692)g, dry beef meat (165)g, sodium chloride (3)g and oil (140)g in each kg ,that a diet according to National Research Council (NRC,.1996). Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) was collected from local market in Khartoum city. The crude water extract were prepared fresh each day by taking 15 g of fresh fruits of Abelmoschus esculentus, the fruits were washed , both ends were cut placed overnight in 250 ml clean drinking water , the fruits will be removed and the crude water extract were put into test tube . The study was performed by monitoring the plasma glucose levels in diabetic rats treated with A. esculentus and the Glucose tolerance test was monitored by the end of the experiment. The experiment extended for three weeks. A complete randomized block designs was used to detect the significant interactions between means, so the data obtained was subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) using statistical analysis system (SAS) version 9 program .Diabetes was induced in the Wistar albino rats by intraperitoneal injection of Alloxan monohydrate (60mg/kg body weight). Forty rats were used in the present work and divided into four groups A , B , C and D , 10 rats in each Group. Group A was a control group, Group B served as diabetic control, Group C was diabetic and treated with metformine (10 mg/kg) and Group D was diabetic and treated with 2ml of crude water extract of A.esculentus per day for each rat. One ml blood samples were collected from the retro-orbital plexus of rats. The plasma glucose levels were measured for all rats on day zero and at day 3, after overnight fasting, to check the induction of diabetes. The level of plasma glucose was determined at days 0, 7, 14 and 21 after applying the different treatments. The results showed significantly (P≤0.05) lower level of plasma glucose in the treated groups C and D, the levels were 157.85 +4.12 mg /dl and 119 ±2.43 mg /dl in groups C and D, respectively when compared to positive control rats B of 230.75 +2.33 mg /dl. At day 21 GTT was performed for all groups; significantly (P≤0.05) lower level of plasma glucose in Group D (96.33 +22.04 mg /dl) was observed which was similar to normal control rats at the end of 4 hr compared to groups B and D. This result indicated that group D showed higher blood glucose uptake compared to groups B and C. This experiment showed that A. esculentus water extract has effect on the lowering of high blood glucose level and it increases blood glucose uptake. It could be used to control hyperglycemia in humans, and it is a promising anti-diabetic agent.
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    Effect of Methanolic Extract of Punicagranatum(Pomegranate) Peels on Liver Functionsin Wistar Albino Rats
    (University of Khartoum, 2019) Ebtehal Alsawi Hassan Salih
    Abstract: P. granatum is commonly used as natural remedy for treatment of several diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased doses of P. granatum on normal liver functions. The study was performed by measuring the levels of liver enzymes, Alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and also the serum total protein, albumin and total globulins. The work was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Khartoum. Pomegranate were obtained from fruit local marketing in Khartoum city. The peels were separated manually from the fruit and were dried at room temperature. The peels were extracted by maceration in methanol for three days . The extract was filtered and evaporated to dryness at room temperature .The rats were divided into four groups, (A, B, C and D), 10 rats each. Group A was kept as control group. Groups B, C and D received methanolic extract of pomegranate peels in different doses, low (200 mg/kg), medium (400 mg/kg) and high( 600 mg/kg) ,respectively for 30 days by oral. Blood samples were collected at days zero,15 and 30. A complete randomized block designs was used to detect the significant interactions between means, so the data obtained was subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) using statistical analysis system ( SAS) version 9 vi program The results revealed, significantly (p≤0.05) lower plasma level of AST in groups B,C and D (63.91±3.51) ,(72.17±5.13) , (82.7±6.17) respectively as compared to the control group (103.34 ± 3.84). ALT showed significant (p≤0.05) decrease in the levels of groups B,C and D, (22.43±0.94), (22.43±2.81) , (26.34±2.81) respectively as compared to the control group (107.82±1.94). At day 30 the result showed no significant differences. The levels of total protein, albumin, globulins and the enzyme ALP showed no significant differences between the tested groups. The results in the present work revealed that, the effect of increasing three doses of P. granatum used in this study are safe and non toxic. This study recommends that P. granatum can be used for the treatment of hepatic failure, when the liver injury caused by exposure to harmful chemical substances.
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    Assessment of Intoxication of Lithium Carbonate and its Alleviation with Ascorbic Acid in Wistar Albino Rats
    (University of Khartoum, ) Modawe, Gad Allah Osman Hamedelneel ; Nabiela Musa ElBagir ; Biochemistry
    Lithium carbonate (LC) has been used for treatment of psychiatric disorders. But prolonged treatment was known to be accompanied by side effects. Interaction of LC with oxidative markers and organs toxicity were reported. The objective of this study was to assess the toxicity of LC and to compare it with its use, accompanied by ascorbic acid (AA) as an antioxidant, in Wistar Albino rats. The measured variables were serum constituents, oxidative stress markers, the body weight (BW) and histopathological alterations in vital organs. The study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum. A complete randomized design was used and the data obtained was subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) by Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) and the student T test was used to detect the significant interactions between the means, this was performed SPPS package program. Ninty rats were used in two experiments. In experiment 1, forty rats were used and divided to four groups, three groups were subjected to different oral doses of LC (9, 17 and 34 mg/kg/BW) daily and the fourth was kept as control group. The experiment was performed in three months and blood samples were collected monthly, then specimens from the liver, kidney and brain, were used for histopathological examination and the liver homogenate preparations were used to assay antioxidant markers. The results revealed significant (P≤0.004) increase of the BW (190.95±4.95g to 204.80±5.73g) and BW gain (15.23±2.50 g to 25.57±4.13g) due to the use of the different doses of LC compared to the control group. The overall means of the serum levels of total protein, albumin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea and creatinine showed significantly (P≤0.005) higher levels in the groups used different doses of the LC compared to the control group. The values were (6.42±0.15 g/dL to 6.95±0.21 g/dL) for the protein, (3.32±0.11 g/dL to 3.58±0.09 g/dL) for the albumin, (26.96±3.35 to 38.80±3.46 U/L) for the ALT, (61.05±5.04 to 63.66±4.10 U/L) the AST, (54.35±1.74 mg/dL to 60.29±2.63 mg/dL) for the urea and (0.66±0.04 mg/dL to 0.75±0.05 mg/dL) for the creatinine level. Only the uric acid showed significantly (P≤0.003) lower level (5.39±0.46 mg/dL to4.08±0.32 mg/dL) compared to the control group. For the oxidative stress markers, the hepatocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) was insignificantly decreased, the hepatocyte catalase (CAT) was significantly (P=0.040) increased (1.66±0.01 to 1.64±0.02 unit/ml) and the hepatocyte malonodialdhyde (MDA) was insignificantly increased in the treated groups compared to the control group. Histopathological findings in the liver showed massive necrosis, congestion of the central vein and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Tubular necrosis, congestion and infiltration of inflammatory cells were the common pathological lesions observed in the kidney and congestion of brain capillaries was the common pathological lesion at different doses of lithium carbonate. In experiment 2, fifty rats were used and divided to five groups, AA, (7mg/kg BW) as antioxidant was added to the different doses of LC during the experimental period. The results revealed also significantly (P≤0.004) higher BW (155.17±7.24g to 197.33±15.34g) and BW gain (33.35±5.85 g to22.52±3.10 g) in the treated groups compared to the control group. The serum levels of total protein, (AST), urea (46.20±2.3mg/dl to51.3±2.7mg/dl) and uric acid were significantly (p≤0.004) increased in all groups of the treated rats compared to the control group. The serum albumin was of similar levels in all treated groups. The serum (ALT) was insignificantly lower in all treated groups compared to control group. The serum creatinine was significantly (P≤0.000) higher in rats treated with 9mg/kg BW, and AA but other groups treated with higher doses and AA showed significantly (p≤0.000) lower levels compared to the control group. Less oxidative stress was observed in hepatocyte markers SOD and MDA showed insignificantly decreased levels and the hepatocyte CAT was insignificantly increased compared to the control group. For histopatholgical changes, when LC was accompanied by L-AA, the infiltration of inflammatory cells was less in the liver and kidney compared to the groups treated with lithium carbonate alone. The use of L-AA alone also reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells. The harmful effect of LC was observed only at the higher doses (17 and 34 mg) of lithium carbonate when accompanied with L-AA which manifested as necrosis of brain cells. It was concluded that, LC treatment in rats caused increased body BW, altered biochemical values, increased oxidative stress and resulted in histopatholgical changes in liver, kidney and brain tissues, and all these effects were reduced when LC was accompanied by AA. The study recommended that patients on LC should be periodically evaluated for hepatic, renal and brain dysfunction and also advised to be supplied with AA, to reduce the toxicity of LC. Future studies should investigate the effect of different doses of the AA on responses to LC therapy. Also the effects of other antioxidants on LC responses should be tested.
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    Evaluation of Hypolipidemic Effect of Artemisia afra (Shih) Ethanolic Extract in Wistar Albino Rats
    (University of Khartoum, ) Nori, Sulafa Hassan Fadul Mahmoud ; Howeida Abdallah Mustafa ; Biochemistry
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an ethanolic extract of Artemisia afra (shih) on serum total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG) and glucose levels in hyperlipidemic Wister albino rats. Thirty two Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups A, B, C and D of eight each, group A was given the basal normal diet and served as control, groups B, C and D were injected with dexamethasone 10 mg/kg body weight subcutaneously for 10 days to induce hyperlipidemia. Group B served as a positive control, whereas groups C and D were orally administrated 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of an ethanolic extract of Artemisia afra (Shih), respectively for 30 days. Blood samples were collected from the retro-orbital plexus of rats, at days 0, 10, 20 and 30 for determination of lipid profile and glucose. The results revealed a significant (P<0.05) hypolipidemic effect of high and low doses (400 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg) of Artemisia afra manifested by decreased serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG) and glucose. Furthermore, the two doses of the extract increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) significantly (P<0.05). Based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded that Artemisia afra is a potent hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic natural product. This provides a laboratory based evidence for its traditional use.
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    Assessment of Serum Lipids Profile in Patients with Hyperthyroidism in Khartoum State
    (University of Khartoum, ) May Adil Ali Mohamed ; Khadiga Abbas Abdel Atti ; Department of Biochemistry
    : This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum thyroid hormones values and lipids profile levels in patients with hyperthyroidism in Khartoum state during the period from November 2014 to January 2015. A total of 50 subjects were included in this study, 25 hyperthyroid patients (4 males and 21 females) their age range from 22 to 59 years and 25 apparently healthy people as control (3 males and 22 females) their age range from 19 to 58 years collected from Khartoum Teaching Hospital and El-Sheikh Hospital. Serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormones (TSH), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were determined by using Automated Enzymes Immunoassay Analyzer (AIA-360). Serum lipids profile including total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TGs) were determined by enzymatic spectrophotometeric methods, whereas very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) was calculated. The study showed that hyperthyroidism was common in females than males (5.25:1), the results revealed that there were significantly (P<0.01) higher values in serum T3 and T4 and significantly (P<0.01) lower values in TSH among hyperthyroid patients when compared with control group. The results of serum lipids profile showed significantly (P<0.01) lower levels in TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and VLDL-C with significantly (P<0.05) higher level in TGs in hyperthyroid patients when compared with control group. No significant (P>0.05) variation was found in the levels of thyroid hormones and lipids profile in hyperthyroidism between female and male subjects and among different age groups. The study concluded that hyperthyroidism leads to disturbance in the levels of serum lipids profile and it is more common in females than males, age and sex did not influence the lipids profile in hyperthyroid patients. The study recommended monitoring the levels of serum triglycerides in hyperthyroid patients to avoid the risk of heart disease and performing studies in the different states of Sudan with large samples and long duration to provide more information about this topic...