Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

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    Case Records and Commentries
    (University of Khartoum, ) Hamid, Khalifa Mohamed Kheir ; Hamid Murad Sabbar
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    Case Management Description in Obstetrics and Gynaecology For Mgo
    (University of Khartoum, ) Mohamed, Mohamed Elsanowsi ; -
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    Case Records and Commentries Submitted
    (University of Khartoum, ) Hamed, Khalifa Mohamed Khir ; -
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    Anthelmintic Activity ofExtracts from Three Putative Medicinal Plants Against Caprine Haemonchosis
    (University of Khartoum, 2015-04-20) Intisar Ahmed Mohamed Osman ; Tigani Hassan Elamin
    Objectives:This research aimed to study anthelmintic effects of aqueous extracts (AE) and methanolic extracts (ME) of Balanites aegyptiacakernel, Peganum harmalaseed and Zizyphus spina-christileaves in Nubian goats infected with Haemoncus contortus. Methodology: The study was carried out in two phases in vivoand in vitro. In the in vitrostudy, a dose of 25mg/ml of the three plant extracts was used against adult Haemoncus contortusworms.In vivostudy, the anthelmintic efficacy of the plant extracts was investigated through faecal egg count reduction at regular intervals for a period of three weeks post treatment by different doses in goats artificially infected with Haemoncus contortus. Biochemical tests were carried out which included liver and kidney function tests. LD50of methanolic extract of the plants was calculated using Wister rats. The effect of the plants extracts on the smooth muscles of rabbit intestine was tested invitro. Results:The result of the in vitrostudy revealed that the aqueous and methanolic extracts of the three plants against adult Haemoncus contortus worms produced mortality rate of 90% for AE and 25% for ME of Balanites aegyptiacaat 12 hrs.The AE and ME of Peganum harmalaproduced mortality rate of 95% and 75% at 12 hrs, while the AE and ME of Z.spinachristiproduced mortality rate of 40%and 100% at 12 hrs respectively. The anthelmintic activity of the three plants was also confirmed by graded dose response in reduction of egg count per gram (EPG) of faeces and reduction in the number of adult Haemoncus contortusfound in abomasa of goats treated with AE and MEof the plants. The AE ofB. aegyptiacaat the doses of 100mg/kg and 400mg/kg showed 9.3% and 61.2% reduction in EPG of faeces on day 21 post treatment respectively. The ME at the doses of 100mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg showed maximum reduction of 20%, 74.7% and 79.2% reduction in EPG offaeces at day 21 post treatment. The AE of Peganum harmala at dose of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg showed 85.4% and 86.6% reduction in EPG of faeces at day 21 post treatments, while the ME at dose of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg resulted in a maximum reduction of 23.9% and 70.3% in EPG at day 21 post treatments respectively. Regarding the AE of Zizyphus spina-Christi, the doses of 100mg/kg and 400mg/kg showed 61.5% and 78.7% reduction in EPG of faeces on day 21 post treatment. While ME at the doses of 100mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg showed maximum reduction of 24.4%, 73.1% and 85.1% reduction in EPG of faeces at day 21 post treatment, respectively. The result of the biochemical assays of the effect of the extracts of Balanites agyptiaca andZizyphus spina-Christion liver and kidney function tests showed no change. For the extracts ofPeganum harmala,the liver function tests revealed no change, but kidney function tests showed slight decrease in urea concentration. In Wister rats, the oral LD50 of methanloic extracts for Balanites aegypticeakernel was more than 25g/kg, forPeganum harmalaseed was 7g/kg and for Zizyphus spina-christi was more than 8g/kg. The AE and ME of Balanites aegyptiacashowed contraction of the smooth muscle of rabbit jejunum. The contraction was blocked by atropine. The AE and ME of Peganum harmalainhibited the spontaneous movements of the rabbit jejunum. These inhibitionswere refractory tothe adrenergic blockers (propranolol and tolazoline). The AE and ME of Zizyphus spinachristishowed relaxation of the rabbit jejunum. These relaxations were blocked by the adrenergicblocker tolazoline CONCLUSION:It is concluded that the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca, Peganum harmalaand Zizyphus spina-christi possess appreciable anthlemintic effects against Haemoncus contortus in goats.
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    Decision-To-Delivery Interval In Non-Elective Caesarean Section: Is It Optimal In Our Hospitals
    (University of Khartoum, 2015-04-12) Abdel Rahman Yousif Elhag ; Abdel Salam Gerais ; Obstetrics and Gynaecology
    Objectives: To study the time interval from decision to delivery of the baby (DDI) in non ELC/S, factors influencing this period of time, and it's reflection on early neonatal and maternal outcome. Settings: Main capital hospitals, Khartoum Teaching Hospital (KTH), Omdurman Maternity Hospital (OMH), Khartoum North Teaching Hospital (KNTH), Soba University Hospital (SUH). Subjects: 323 non ELC/S done in the period from 1st Jan. to 31st Jan.2003. Results: DDI found to be, 46 minutes (mean) for 273 (84%) EmC/S, 20.5 minutes (mean) for (9%) crash C/S, 66.5 minutes (mean) for 21(7%) urgent C/S. Percentage achievement of DDI < 30 min was 48%, which is comparable with that in the literature. With regard to the factors influencing the DDI like, preparation of the patient requirements, fees, (previous C/S Scar found not affecting DDI nor the state of the lady being educated or not). With general anaesthesia DDI was found to be less than DDI with spinal anaesthesia and the difference was statistically significant (P>0.05) but not affecting the early neonatal and maternal out come, seniority of the operator was also found to affect the DDI (SUH) and the difference between non EIC/S DDI done by registrar and that done by house-officer was statistically significant also (P > 0.05) but also not affecting the outcome. Early neonatal outcome in EmC/S group (273) we had one ENND and 272 were in good condition, 11(4%) were admitted in NICU and discharged in good condition, Apgar score at 1 min <3 =1, Apgar score at 5 min >7 =272, average weight 3.1kg. In the crash C/S 29(9%) Apgar score at 1 myn <3 =0, Apgar score at 5 min >7 =29, no admission in NICU average weight 2.9 kg. For urgent C/S 21(7%), Apgar score at 1 min <3 =0, Apgar score at 5 min >7 =21, admission to NICU were 4(19%) of the urgent group. Discharged in good condition average weight 2.8kg. With regard to maternal outcome all were favourable all 323 non EIC/S recover smoothly from anaesthesia (where G.A was used in 83%). Day three maternal haemoglobin was 70% (mean) for the EmC/S, 69% for crash C/S, and 71.5% for the urgent C/S. The need for maternal blood transfusion was like that, 3.2% for EmC/S [273 (84%)], 6.8% of the crash C/S [29 (9%)], and 0% for urgent C/S [21 (7%)]. Conclusion: In 323 non EIC/S, 48% were done in less than or equal 30 minutes. Short-term neonatal and maternal outcome was favourable.