Food Hygiene and Safety

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    The Determination of Bacterial Load in White Cheese in Khartoum Locality, Sudan
    (University of Khartoum, 2017) Raheeg Mohammed SirajAldeen Abass
    Abstract Background: Cheese is known as a complete nutritious food product and excellent source of many key nutrients, suitable for many ages. Cheese production must be protected from pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, as well as from decaying both on the sites of production and consumption. Microorganisms present in dairy products (fermented milk, cheese) belong to three groups; those responsible for transmission of food borne diseases; others that may cause defects in dairy products and the ones that produce desirable flavor and physical characteristics. Unless milk used for cheese processing is pasteurized or otherwise treated to destroy pathogens, pathogenic or toxin producing organisms present in raw milk could be found in cheese. These organisms may find their way into cheese as a result of environmental contamination during processing and packaging. The objectives of the study were to determine the bacterial quality and to investigate the occurrence of Listeria spp. in Sudanese white cheese in Khartoum Locality, Sudan. Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional study. A total coverage of Sudanese white cheese was statistically collected from a total of 50 samples from market at Alamarat area, during January to March 2016. Samples were examined bacteriological for their load by Total Viable Count and Listeria spp. using the biochemical tests in the laboratory of the Department of Food Hygiene and Safety- Faculty of Public and Environmental Health- University of Khartoum. Results: The number of microorganisms which were present in one gram of Sudanese white cheese approximately ranged between 1×105 to 2.9×107colony forming unit/g. Listeria spp isolated from Sudanese white cheese samples were four (8%). The species were identified as Listeria ivanovii 2 (4%) and Listeria murrayi 2(4%). Conclusion: Sudanese white cheese was highly bacterially contaminated and contained Listeria spp. Therefore more attention is required to apply intensive hygienic measures to warranty consumer safety. المستخلص يعرف الجبن بأنه منتج غذائي كامل ومصدر ممتاز للعديد من العناصر الغذائية األساسية ، الخلفية: وهو مناسب للعديد من األعمار. يجب حماية إنتاج الجبن من الكائنات الحية الدقيقة المسببة لألمراض والتلف ، وكذلك من الفساد في كل من مواقع اإلنتاج واالستهالك. تنتمي الكائنات الدقيقة الموجودة في منتجات األلبان (الحليب المخمر والجبن) إلى ثالث مجموعات ؛ المسؤوله عن نقل األمراض التي تنقلها األغذية ؛ واآلخرين التي قد تسبب عيوبا في منتجات األلبان وتلك التي تنتج نكهة مرغوبة وخصائص فيزيائية. ما لم يتم بسترة حليب اللبن المستخدم في صناعة الجبن أو يعالج بطريقة أخرى لتدمير مسببات األمراض ، يمكن العثور على الكائنات المسببة لألمراض أو السموم الموجودة في الحليب الخام في الجبن. قد تجد هذه الكائنات طريقها إلى الجبن كنتيجة للتلوث البيئي أثناء التصنيع والتعبئة. تهدف الدراسة لتحديد الجودة البكتيرية والتحقيق من وجود اجناس بكتريا الليستريا في الجبن األبيض السوداني في محلية الخرطوم ، السودان. الجبن األبيض السوداني إحصائيا بالتغطية شاملة لعينات .الطريقه: دراسة مقطعية وصفية. تم الجمع من إجمالي 50 عينة من البقاالت في منطقة العمارات ، خالل الفترة من يناير إلى مارس .2016 تم ووجود اجناس عن طريق العد الكلي الحي الجودة البكتيرية لتحديد العينات البكتريولوجية فحص بكتريا الليستريا باستخدام االختبارات البيوكيميائية في المعمل قسم صحة وسالمة الغذاء - كلية الصحة العامة والبيئية - جامعة الخرطوم.. النتائج : عدد الكائنات الدقيقة التي كانت موجودة في غرام واحد من الجبن األبيض السوداني 105×1 تتراوح مابين. الي .107×2.9 وكانت نسب أنواعها كاآلتى: ليستريا إيفانوفي 2 4( ٪) وجود بكتريا الليستريا في اربعة عينات 8( ٪.) ، وليستريا موراي 2 4( ٪.) انواع من اجناس عالية ويحتوي على بصورة الجبن األبيض السوداني ملوثا بالبكتيريا الخالصة : بكتريا الليستريا .لذا ، يلزم المزيد من االهتمام بتطبيق تدابير صحية مكثّفة لضمان سالمة المستهلك
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    Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Fluid Milk Products, Khartoum State 2015
    (University of Khartoum, ) Abeer Awad Alamin Fadlalla ; Ibtisam El Yas Mohamed El Zubeir
    Background: Aflatoxins are toxic fungal metabolites found in foods and feeds. When ruminants eat Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)– contaminated feedstuffs, they metabolize the toxin and excrete AFM1 in milk. The aim of this study was to determine contamination of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in fluid milks in Khartoum State, Sudan Methods: The samples were analyzed by aflasensor kits, using screening method; eighty seven samples of fluid milks were collected from different sources randomly. About 25 samples from dairy farms (raw) and 62 samples of processed milk from 3 factories; 40 UHT, 12 flavored UHT and 10 pasteurized milk. Rapid test was used for detection of aflatoxin M1 (Aflasensor kit). Result: The presence of AFM1 contamination was detected in most of the milk samples (85.06%). High prevalence (88.7%) of aflatoxin M1 was detected in the processed milk (flavored, pasteurized and UHT revealed 100%, 100% and 82%, respectively) and the raw milk showed 92%. Almost 85.06% of the contaminated milk samples exceeded the European Commission level (0.05 µg/kg) and Codex Alimentarius recommended limit (0.5 µg/kg). Conclusion: The presence of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk and processed sample might suggested high occurrence of AFM1 in milk samples which might constituted a possible hazard for human health. Therefore, there is a need to limit exposure to aflatoxins by imposing regulatory limits. Further studies are also needed on large scale basis to investigate the AFM1 and other mycotoxins in milk and dairy products.
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    Ameliorating House Environment By Efficient Use of Plants in Khartoum (Case study El Riyadh Residential Area)
    (University of Khartoum, 2015-05-14) Abdel Razig, Mayada Abdel Razig Mohammed ; Osman El Kheir ; Environmental Studies
    In view of the global economic, ecological and social development, the future of healthy environment looks uncertain. The facts are well known about the increasing consumption of energy and other resources. The threat of global climate change is ever present and the consequences regarding the environment and energy situation are obvious. The problem of steadily increasing energy consumption by climatically nonadapted buildings is widely spread. Even though, present trends in construction on hot-arid regions still show little awareness about climatically adapted house designs. To designers and households with the input of sufficient energy almost everything seems possible. A possible alternative is the application of natural means in addition to design, construction and materials, which are adapted to the specific climate. More interest in the utilization of natural means for cooling is evident due to two factors. The increased cost and scarcity of the conventional energy and the desire to reduce pollution. This study, which is carried on El Riyadh residential area, accentuates on the great importance of the use of plants in yards as a primary constituent of any house environment. The study looks at the problem from an architectural, landscape, horticultural, and environmental basis. It assumes that architects, horticulturist and landscape designers play an important role in improving the conditions of the house environment by efficient use of plants. The main objective of this research is availing information about the use of plants not as a natural means for ameliorating the environment only but as a multifunctional system, which may easily be adopted. This is accomplished by discussing the main roles of plants and representing plants as multi-functional system, beside exhibiting the main principles of landscape design; and explaining information about the water efficient landscape. Example of El Riyadh residential area was done, to present the situation of the use of plants in Khartoum. It showed less use and miss use of plants in houses’ yards which resulted in deteriorating houses environment, also showed less use of outdoor spaces (Alhoosh) because of the absence of shade and high degrees of temperature. A final discussion was based on the main findings of the study, general conclusion, some recommendations and points for further research.
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    Antibacterial Activity of Trigonella foenum greacum linn (Fenugreek) Seed
    (University of Khartoum, 2015-03-29) Eltigani, Nafisa ; Amira Abdel Azeem Behairy ; El Bushra El Sheikh El Nur( ; Food Hygiene and Safety
    Trigonella foenum graecum L. (fenugreek) is considered to have along history in medicine. It was used by Chinese for improvement of metabolic activities and the general heath. It is also used as spice and a cure in many parts of the world. In Sudan, it is used in folkrolic medicine for the ttreatment of boils, diarrhea and abdominal pain.
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    Reproductive Health Promotion in Emergency Situation: Internally Displaced Persons Camps
    (University of Khartoum, 2015-03-26) Adam,Izzeldin Fadl ; Kamil Mirghani Shaaban, ; Epidemiology
    This is a prospective quasi-experimental study was conducted in Internally Displaced Person camps, West Darfur-Sudan in Feb. 2007 up to April 2008. The study based on both health facilities and community settings, and focused mainly on reproductive health promotion. The aim was to evaluate the provision of RH services to internally displaced persons (IDPs). Specifically, the objectives for the study were to assess the level of accessibility for the beneficiaries married women at child bearing age (MWCBA) to RH services; to measure the quality of care provided and performance of community health providers (CHPs); and to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of IDPs, towards RH services. RH intervention conducted include emergency obstetric care, postnatal and antenatal care, family planning, safe motherhood, STIs include AIDs/HIV control and reproductive health education based on the community approaches and social initiatives through community health committees (CHCs) and massive social mobilization campaigns. Training for midwives, vaccinators, health promoters were took place in the intervention of the study. A framework adopted for implementation outlined in the Interagency Field Manual on reproductive health in emergency situations. Pilot study was done followed by pre-intervention and post survey. Health Internetwork for Access of Research Initiative (HINARI) and EndNote programs were used for citation of literature review. Admission criteria was cited for 6051(MWCBA), then a sample of 640 women calculated through statistical formula. However, the sample selected within 32 clusters in 3 camps through cross-sectional sampling. The evaluation tools were adapted from the Reproductive Health Response in Conflict (RHRC), Consortium’s Health Needs Assessment Field Tools included the health facility checklist, group discussion, provider questions, IDP questionnaire and the client exit interview protocol. The study found high quality of care in tetanus vaccination, antenatal and postnatal care, as well as for emergency obstetric care and post complication care. Notwithstanding these positive findings, services for STIs/HIV/AIDS and GBV, were found to be generally less comprehensive in some clinics. However, notable performance of health providers indicated but refresher training is needed. Therefore, statistically significant difference observed from Base Line Data to post-intervention survey included RH messages, protection from violence, HIV/AIDS knowledge, FGM, contraceptive knowledge and use, antenatal care, vaccination, work reduction during pregnancy, favorite place for delivery and post-natal care. With odds ratio (3.56, 4.076, 7.018, 1.076, 5.337, 2.151, 15.973, 3.841, 1.662, 4.824 and 5.665) respectively. The study recommended on adoption of community based approaches and social initiatives in implementing of RH in emergency; gaps in gender based violence (GBV) management, HIV/AIDS services need to be filled; peripheral clinics which handed over by NGOs should be re-operated by SMOH; comprehensive program should be implemented for prevention and management of excessive pregnancy complications and maternal morbidity and finally, further researches and studies should be conducted to throw light on critical points of our study.