Vol. 11, No. 3, 2003

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    Effect of Cassia senna L. Seed Kernel Extract on Pieris brassicae L. Larvae
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 2003) Osman, M.Z. ; Hamid, M. E. ; Selman, B. J.
    Crude extract of Cassia senna was used to assay its effect on Pieris brassicae L. (Lepidoptera) larvae. The extract was divided into organic and aqueous layers. From the aqueous layer, two glycosylated compounds, A and B, were isolated and purified using thin-layer chromatography. Neither the organic, aqueous, compound A nor compound B showed significant antifeedant or repellent activities to the larvae of Pieris brassicae when fed cabbage leaves treated with residual film of the extracted senna compounds. High mortality and inhibition of development of the larvae were observed with both organic and aqueous layers, and the highest mortality and inhibition of development were shown by compound A with LD50 attained at 0.0425% dose concentration. This indicated a very high toxicity of this compound to the larvae of Pieris brassicae.
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    Naming of Abu Sabein Sorghums
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 2003) Kambal, A.E.
    The name Abu Sabein is used for two distinct sorghum cultivars, one grown for grain in Rubatab area and the other grown for forage in Khartoum and Gezira States and for grain in Aliab area. To avoid confusion and the ensuing problems, it is proposed to designate the former culture "Abu Sabein Rubatab" and the latter "Abu Sabein Aliab"
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    Assessment of an Introduced Wooden Agitator for Milk Fat Extraction in Rural Dairy Processing
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 2003) El-Hag, F.M. ; Ahmed, M.M. M. ; Mudathir, A.A. ; Elbushra, O.E. ; Mekki, M.A. ; Omer, M.A.
    Milk churning trials were conducted for three consecutive rainy (July-October) seasons (1995/96, 1996/97 and 1997/98) with women of a transhumant tribe in North Kordofan State, Sudan. Dairy products in the area were sampled in the first season, and chemically analyzed and assessed for microbial profile. ILCA (International Livestock Centre for Africa) wooden agitator for milk fat separation was used and compared with the traditional milk churning method. In the second season, ILCA agitator was modified to fit into the local gourd instead of the original clay pot. In the third season, the three methods were compared in a 3x2 factorial experiment using milk condition (fresh vs. boiled) as a second factor. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the hygiene measures in rural dairy products and to assess the introduced wooden agitator for milk fat extraction. The rural dairy products sampled had high total bacteria and mold counts and reflected poor hygiene and sanitation measures. Both ILCA wooden agitator and the modified model had significantly (P<0.01) reduced churning time and resulted in higher ghee yield of good quality compared to the traditional method. Considerable proportion of milk fat was lost to butter milk in the traditional method in comparison with ILCA and the modified wooden agitators (P<0.001). ILCA wooden agitator was superior to the traditional method in terms of money returns. Both ILCA and the modified wooden agitators were easy to operate and had a time saving advantage compared to the traditional method. It was concluded that the modified wooden agitator should be advocated for more rural women in the area and similar ecological zones. Furthermore, there is a high need for introducing new, simple and easy methods for dairy processing to women in such areas.
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    Response of Acacia senegal to Post-rainy Season Irrigation and Grass Mulch in Sandy Soils of North Kordofan
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 2003) Omer, M.A. ; El Tahir, B.A. ; Ballal, M.M ; Korak, Ali M.A.
    An experiment was conducted at the farm of El Obeid Research Station during 1994/95 and 1995/96 seasons to study the effects of mulched surface water harvesting and post-rainy season supplementary irrigation on the growth of Acacia senegal, in sandy soils of north Kordofan. The treatments involved measured amounts of irrigation water applied at 2, 4 and 8 weeks intervals and no irrigation (control) with mulched and non-mulched (bare) surface. Supplementary irrigation was beneficial for growth, especially when applied at intervals of 2 or 4 weeks. The mulched treatments produced about 32% more branches and 80% more tapped branches than the non-mulched treatments. The irrigation treatments produced about 136%, 112% and 70% more branches than the non-irrigated treatments for 2, 4 and 8 weeks intervals, respectively. The irrigation intervals of 2, 4 and 8 weeks increased the number of tapped branches by 226%, 132% and 126% more than the non-irrigated treatment, respectively. The percentages of ripe trees, after 27 months, were about the same (79% and 85%) for 2 and 4 weeks irrigation intervals, and were significantly higher than for 8 weeks and control treatments. Mulched scoop gave higher number (75%) of trees reaching maturity than bare scoop (48%). The results suggest that combining mulching with biweekly or monthly irrigation improved growth and hastened maturity of A. senegal under the conditions of North Kordofan. It is worth noting that small quantities of additional irrigation water amounting to 294 m3/ha, as a total of six irrigations (4.9 mm/irrigation/ ha/ month) resulted in remarkable improvement in growth of Acacia senegal trees.
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    Intraspecific Variation in Leaflet Anatomy and Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. Seedlings
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 2003) Khalil, A.A. M. ; Siam, A.M.J.
    Differences in leaflet anatomy and seedling morphometric and physiological characteristics were assessed in 3-month-old seedlings of Acacia senegal from four different geoclimatic zones (viz.: El-fashir and Hawata from Sudan, Windou-tiengloy from Senegal and Dha-bi-ji from Pakistan). Based on the annual rainfall at the site of origin, the seed sources were classified into xeric (El-fashir and Dha-bi-ji) and mesic (Hawata and Windou-tiengloy). Seedlings were grown in large polythene tubes under natural nursery conditions. Xeric provenances had significantly (P<0.05) higher stomatal density than the mesic. Dha-bi-ji displayed significantly thicker leaf than El-fashir and Windou-tiengloy; however, no significant difference in guard cells length among the provenances was detected. Dha-bi-ji had significantly (P<0.05) shorter shoot and lower number of leaflets/pinna than the other provenances and smaller number of pinnae/leaf than that of Windou-tiengloy and El-fashir. Dha-bi-ji showed the highest values for net photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, while Hawata displayed the lowest values of these traits. No significant difference was obtained in water use efficiency and stem water potential among the studied provenances. In most of the anatomical and morphological traits, Dha-bi-ji exhibited more xeromorphic traits than the other provenances. The functional implications of the diversity of genotypes within Hashab populations are discussed in the framework of selection of seed sources for dry land afforestation.