Department of Silviculture

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    Effects of Rainwater Harvesting Techniques on Establishment, Growth and Survival of some Multipurpose Tree Species Transplants on Dry land in South Darfur State, Sudan
    (University of Khartoum, 2020) Adam ZaKria Abdalla Omer
    Abstract: The study was conducted in Nyala Agriculture Research Station farm South Darfur state during July 2018 to August 2019.The study aimed to assess and test the effects of water harvesting techniques for establishment and survival of some tree transplants namely Acacia senegal, Ziziphus spina-christi and Grewia tenax; to assess the influence of it on soil moisture content; to screen appropriate techniques that ensure the best establishment of tree species and to investigate information and knowledge local practice on agricultural crops and tree cultivation . Four water harvesting techniques were tested namely control, semicircular bund, trapezoidal bund and V-shape catchment. The experiment was arranged in Design (RCBD) with 6 blocks as replications. The following stat was measured; survival rates, heights, diameters and number of branches. Root measured at the end of the second season after excavating the transplants. Soil moisture contents within water harvesting techniques were measured from three depths, 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm, three times during the trials period. Social surveys were conducted by questionnaires a total number of 300 respondents as sample size and using purposive sampling technique random track in the study area and 50 farmers for tract. The results of soil moisture content at three depths of soil for three species ware recorded only in 5% starting point and at depth 0-20cm(17.3 ,15.6,14.6 and13.9 %) , depth 20-40cm ware recorded(17,15.4,15 and 6.3 %) and depth 40-60cm in trapezoidal bund, V-shape, semicircular and in control respectively . Trapezoidal bund was the best for collecting and preserving water than V-shape catchment, semicircular compared to control. The survival rate results for all species in the second season were recorded for A. senegal (75, 66.7, 66.7 and 50%) then for Z. spina-christi (75, 66.7, 58.3 and 25%) and for G. tenax (66.7, 58.3, 58.3 and 41.7%) in trapezoidal bund, semicircular bund, V-shape catchment and control, respectively. The results showed that the transplants heights, diameters, number of branches and tree roots lengths in the second season ware recorded for A. senegal, Z. spina-christi and G. tenax. Diameter ware recorded high scores (2.7, 2.6 and 2.2 mm) for G. tenax, A. senegal and Z. spina-christi. Number of branches ware recorded for Z. spina-christi (23, 19, 17 and 10), for A. senegal (24, 21, 20 and 10), for G. tenax (15, 13, 12 and 11) in trapezoidal bund, semicircular bund, V-shape catchment and control. The roots lengths recorded (53, 67and 86 cm) for G. tenax, Z. spina-christi and A. Senegal, respectively at. Biomass for A. senegal (3.9, 3.4, 3.1 and 1.7‎ g) and for root (3.5, 3.4, 2.8‎ and2.5 g), for Z.spina-christi (3.5, 3. 4, 2.8 and 2.5 g), for root (2.7, 2.4, and 2.4 and1.3g) and for G. tenax s (3.4, 3.1, 3, 1.7 g) and for root (2.4, 2.8, 3.5 and2.5 g) in trapezoidal bund, semicircular bund and V-shape catchment and control respectively. Roots length for A. Senegal (85.7, 77, 74 and47.7 cm), for Z.spina-christi (87.7, 85, 81 and52.7 and for G. tenax 71.7, 71.7, 70.7 and 46.3 cm) in trapezoidal bund, semicircular and V-shape and control respectively. This could be related to the fact that water harvesting techniques have the capacity to store the surface runoff that has been harvested and as well provide more moisture and more good materials for plant growth. The results of social questionnaires data analysis showed that the majority of the respondents are farmers. The study recommended that further research should focus on rainwater harvesting techniques a one of the most important options to address food security for families with drily environments due to drought and in areas with moistness due to the ease in which rainwater harvesting techniques are available and applied using manual labor and locally available materials. Rainwater harvesting, storage, and use-safely can save time and labor which the farmer can use in other activities. المٌستخلص: أجريت الدراسة في مزرعة محطة أبحاث نيالا الزراعية بولاية جنوب درفور و نفذت خلال يوليو 2018 إلى أغسطس 2019. هدفت الدراسة إلى تقييم و إختبار تأثيرات تقنيات حصاد المياه علي الإنشاء و البقاء الشتلات علي قيد الحياة ، لتقييم تأثير تقنيات حصاد المياه على محتوى رطوبة التربة، لفحص التقنيات المناسبة التي تضمن أفضل إنشاء لأنواع الأشجار و لإستقصاء المعلومات المتعلقة بالممارسات المحلية بشأن زراعة الأشجار بإستخدام حصاد المياه. تم إختبار أربع تقنيات حصاد المياه هي الشاهد، نصف دائري (هلاليات) ،شكل شبه منحرف و شكل المثلث. تم ترتيب التجربة في تصميم مربعات كاملة العشوائية مع 6 مربعات كتكرارات. تم قياس حال الأشجار التالية شهريًا هي معدل البقاء والارتفاع والقطر وعدد الفروع. تم قياس أطوال الجذر والكتلة الحيوية للأشجار في الموسم الثاني. تم قياس محتويات رطوبة للتربة لثلاثة أعماق ، 0-20 ، 20-40 و 40-60 سم ، ثلاث مرات خلال فترة التجارب. أجريت مسح اجتماعي بالاستبيان بعدد 300فرد،تم أخذ العينة غرضية بعدد 50مزارع.سجلت نتائج رطوبة التربة لثلاثة أنواع تحت تقنيات حصاد المياه قيمًا عالية في شكل شبه منحرف ، شكل مثلث و شكل الهلالي على التوالي مقارنة مع الشاهد للهشاب ، سدر والقضيم علي التوالي. سجل رطوبة التربة في نقطة البداية 5% و في عمق 0-20سم (17.3، 15.6، 14.6، (%13.9 وفي عمق 20-40سم سجل( 17، 15.4، 15، % 13.9 ) في عمق 40-60 سم سجل (17، 15.4، 15، (%13.9 في شكل شبه المنحرف كان الأفضل ثم الشكل الهلالي ، شكل و شكل المثلث مقارنة مع الشاهد. تم تسجل معدل البقاء على قيد الحياة لجميع أنواع الاشجار في الموسم الثاني للهشاب (75، 66.7،66.7، (58.3% و للسدر (75،66.7، 58.3، %25 (و للقضيم (66.7،58.3، 58.3، 41 % (في شكل شبه المنحرف ، شكل الهلالي , شكل المثلث مقارنة بالشاهد على التوالي.سجل طول الاشجار، القطر، عدد الفروع و طول جذور في الشكل شبه المنحرف، نصف الهلالي وشكل المثلث على التوالي مقارنة بالشاهد. سجل في الموسم الثاني للهشاب و السدر و القضيم (2.7,2 , 2.2 ملم) . أماعدد الفروع المسجلة كانت كبيرة لسدر (31 , 24 ، 21)، للهشاب (27, 26 , 23 ، 11) و للقضيم (15 , 13,12 ، 11) في شكل شبه المنحرف، شكل الهلالي ، شكل المثلث و الشاهد. تم تسجيل أطوال الجذور( 53 ، 67 ، 68 ) سم للقضيم و السدر و الهشاب على التوالي. سجل الكتلة الحية الكتلة الحيوية للهشاب (3.9 ،3.4 , 1.7جرام) وللجذر (3.5،3.4 ، 2.8 ، 2.5 جرام ) للسد،3.4. ,3.5 3.5 ،2.8 جرام) للجذر(2.7 ، 1.3، 2.4 ، 2.4جرام ( و قضيم (3.4 ،3.1،3 ،1.7 جرام) للجزور(3.5، 2.8، 2.5، 2.4و 1.3 ( في شبه المنحرف ، نصف دائري ومثلث والشاهد على التوالي. يمكن أن يرتبط ذلك بحقيقة أن تقنيات حصاد المياه لديها القدرة على تخزين المياه الذي تم حصاده و كذلك توفير المزيد من الرطوبة لنمو النبات.أيضا أظهرت نتائج تحليل بيانات الاستبيانات الإجتماعية أن غالبية المستجيبين من المزارعين. توصي الدراسة بإجراء مزيد من البحوث التي ينبغي أن تركز علي تقنيات حصاد مياه الأمطار علي إنها واحدة من أهم الخيارات لمعالجة الأمن الغذائي للعائلات في البيئات ذات الجفاف و في المناطق التي تعاني من إجهاد الرطوبة و ذلك نسبةً لسهولة توفر تقنيات حصاد مياه الأمطار و تطبيقها باستخدام العمالة اليدوية و المواد المتاحة محلياً. يمكن حصاد مياه الأمطار و تخزينها و إستخدامها بأمان لتوفير الوقت و الجهد الذي يمكن المزارع من إستدامه في أنشطة أخرى
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    Assessment of the Effect of selected common Tree Species on Microclimate of Urban areas Khartoum State, Sudan
    (university of khartoum, ) Ali, Fatma Awad Fadel Elmola Mohammed ; Kamal F. Elseed El Khalifa
    Trees in cities have important positive effects on people’s lives. One such positive effect is the amelioration of microclimate. The objective of this research is to assess the effects of some tree species on microclimate of urban areas during summer season, Khartoum State (2014-2015). The microclimate was measured for a number of the most common tree species growing in the parks and streets of Khartoum, which are (Albizia lebbeck, Azadirachta indica, Ficus bengalensis, Khaya senegalensis, Peltophorum pterocarpum). Air temperatures (◦C), relative humidity percentage and wind speed (m/s) were measured at a height of 1.5 m from the ground under the shade of trees and out of the shade in bare area. Measurements of tree parameters were taken for all trees in the study area and these included DBH (cm), crown diameter (m) and tree height (m). Statistical Analysis was done by using SPSS program version 11.5, whereas chart was done by excel 2007. The results showed during both Summer seasons (2014 and 2015), temperatures under trees were significantly lower than that outside trees with an overall reduction estimated by about 10.2% for the 2014 season and 9.5% for the 2015 season. During both seasons, the species with the highest percentage mean for reduction in temperature under trees (as compared to outside tree for the corresponding species) was Ficus (12.4%) followed by Khaya (10.2%), Peltophorum (9.8%), Azadirachta (8.6% ) and Albizzia (8.3%). During both seasons mean mid-day relative humidity was significantly higher under trees than that outside trees, the overall increase is estimated by about 26.98% in 2014 season and about 25.90% for 2015 season. The mean increase under tree relative humidity for both seasons as compared to outside tree was 20.2% for Albizzia, 38.3% for Ficus, 29.9% for Khaya, 22.1% for Azadirachta and 23.8% for Peltophoroum. The results also showed that, wind speed under trees for all species under study was significantly lower than that outside trees in both seasons, the overall reduction estimated by about 82.8% for 2014 and 80.4% for 2015. The mean reduction in wind speed during both seasons for Albizza, Ficus, Khaya, Azadirachta Peltophrum, was 77.9%, 88.9%, 82.9%, 78.5% and 80.7%, respectively. The results showed that temperature and wind speed under tree in both seasons were significantly lower than that outside trees, for tree height, crown diameter and DBH classes and Relative humidity. The effect of different locations revealed that, Khartoum Parks had lower mean of temperature than that of Bahri and Omdurman and these was estimated by about 1.3% and 2.1%, respectively. Khartoum street trees showed the highest percentage of increase in R.H%, which was about 35.1% in 2014 and 34.27% in 2015. The results showed that there was a positive correlation between temperature under trees and outside trees (r= 0.770**, p= 0.000), coefficient of determination (r2) was 0.595. There was negative correlation between under tree temperature and under tree R.H% (r=‾0.566**, p= 0.000) and outside R.H% (r=‾0.507**, p= 0.000). The information on Nile Street was analyzed separately, due to the fact that the trees are adjacent to the Blue Nile and have large sizes. Temperature under trees was significantly lower than that outside trees, the reduction in temperature under as compared to that in bare area was about 12.9% for 2014 season and 12.1% for 2015 season. Relative humidity significantly increased under Nile Street trees compared to outside trees in both seasons, the percentage of increase was 25.5% for 2014 season and 27.0% for 2015 season. The results showed that wind speed under Nile Street trees in both seasons was significantly reduced than that outside trees, and the reduction was 88.5% for 2014 season and 88.6% for 2015 season. Temperature, relative humidity and wind speed under and outside trees for tree height, crown diameter and DBH almost showed a similar trend to that for tree species in both seasons, where temperature and wind speed significantly were reduced under trees by the same value, as compared to outside trees, whereas relative humidity was significantly increased under trees compared to outside trees almost by the same values. The study confirmed that, the selected tree species had highly significant effects on reduction of air temperature and wind speed and increase in relative humidity. More studies are needed on suitable trees species that act as heat and drought tolerant species and resistant to wind damage, and also have other relevant physiological characteristics. More studies are needed on the effect of trees shade on the energy used for air-conditioner and cooling systems. If enough, large and healthy trees are planted in Khartoum, the overall microclimate will improve.
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    Assessment of Vegetation Cover Change in Sheikan Locality, North Kordofan, Sudan, during 2005 - 2015
    Sahar Siddeg Mohammed Salih ; Kamal Fadl Elseed El khalifa ; Silviculture
    This study was conducted in Sheikan locality, North Kordofan in 2014 - 2015. The main objective was to assess vegetation cover change, to compare density of trees and shrubs in 2014 and 2015 to the density of 2007. The area was classified into North and South based on climatic zones. For trees and shrubs assessment, 10 plots (0.1 ha) were systematically placed in each site. For herbaceous layer assessment, 25 plots were placed in each site. Social survey was also carried out where 80% people in the area were interviewed. Ecological data was analyzed by SAS software while social data was analyzed by Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) where Duncan Multiple Range Test was used. Density and relativeness were calculated. Results identified 14 trees, 2 shrubs, and 27 herbaceous plants including grasses. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were found in density of trees between North and South where significant variations were limited to specific species in certain sites e.g. density of Balanites aegyptiaca was 20 trees per hectare in the north while it was 8 trees per hectare in the South. There was significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) in existence and appearance of tree species between 2007 and 2014 where Acacia seyal var. seyal and Capparis decidua disappeared and Bauhinia rufescens appeared in 2015.The results also revealed decrease in density of Cenchrus biflorus and Fimbristyls dichotoma in 2015 compared to 2014. Compared to the last 11 years, unpalatable species appeared such as Commicarpus africanus. The status of the pasture is considered good. Agriculture expansion and overstocking affected plant vegetation cover. The pasture status direction deteriorated under improper management. Further studies were recommended to assess the effect of grazing on pastoral plants to determine direction of pasture status.
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    Acacia seyal Var seyal Del. and Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth, Nursery Establishment and the Effects of Land Preparation on their Growth in North West Sennar, Sudan
    (University of Khartoum, 2015-06-23) Yousif Abd El Rahman Ahmed, El Basheir ; Kamal Fadl El Seed El Khalifa ; Silviculture
    Acacia seyal and Acacia mellifera are of great economical importance in the Sudan. Besides their many uses and values, Acacia seyal produces gum. Little or no experimentation work was done on their establishment, and artificial regeneration in the field. This study investigated their raising in the nursery and the effect of three methods of land preparation on their regeneration in the field. Four experiments were conducted: - Seed germination; using three shade conditions, three different pretreatments, soaking in concentrated sulphuric acid (5 minutes), boiling water (30 minutes), cold water (24 hours) and control for Acacia seyal. Acacia mellifera seeds were placed under different light intensity. - Seedling production of Acacia seyal; using different pretreatments, soaking in concentrated sulphuric acid (5 minutes), boiling water (30 minutes) and cold water (24 hours), three different light intensities (high light intensity, partial shade and low light intensity). - Seedling production of Acacia mellifera; using the three shade conditions, adopted for Acacia seyal. The parameters measured were above ground parameters (shoot height and shoot fresh weight (g) and below ground parameters (root length (cm) and root fresh weight (g)). - The effect of land preparation on artificial regeneration of Acacia seyal and Acacia mellifera; using three methods of land preparation: Furrowing method, (by using Moldboard plow), ditching method (by using Ditcher) and Disking method (by using wide level disc harrow) the parameters measured were above ground and under ground parameters. Pregermination treatments and shade condition had significant effect. Acacia seyal highest germination percentage was obtained by the use of concentrated sulphuric acid (100% for 5 minutes) under low light intensity. For Acacia mellifera, low light intensity also proved to be the best. The best condition for producing nursery stock of Acacia seyal is the use of concentrated sulphuric acid under high light intensity or partial shade. Also high light intensity and partial shade gave high growth of Acacia mellifera seedlings, probably due to the direct effect of light intensity on photosynthesis which increased with increased light, stomatal opening and chlorophyll synthesis. Medium tillage, by Moldboard plow proved to be the suitable technique for land preparation for both Acacia seyal and Acacia mellifera planting, compared to wide level disc harrow and Ditcher. Moldboard plow significantly affected growth of Acacia seyal and Acacia mellifera, probably because of the cut of soil which is medium and that affect the availability of nutrients, leads to higher water retention and improved soil condition.
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    : Effects of the Tree Species and Hedgerow Spacing on Some Ecophysiological Aspects of Two Forage Plants in an Alley Cropping Trial
    (UOFK, 2015-06-22) Hisham Mohy El Din Mohamed, Tahir ; Salah El Din Goda Co-Supervisor: Hussein Abd El Rahim -Mohamed Mohamed Ahmed El Nour ; Silviculture
    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of tree species and hedgerow spacing on some ecophysiological aspects of two forage plants in an alley cropping trial. The research work was conducted at the Agricultural Research Farm of the University of Khartoum in Shambat during the period April 1994 to December 1995. Seedlings of the three tree species were raised at Soba Forest Nursery during the period August 1993 to March 1994. Tree species used were Albizia lebbeck, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Parkinsonia aculeata. Spacings between hedgerows were 8 metres , 6 metres and 4 metres. The two forage plants were Dolichos lalab and Sorghum bicolor var. "Abu Sabaien". The Trial was laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. Plots of sole forage plants were also used as controls. Irrigation to field capacity was applied throughout the trial. The trial was conducted during two cropping seasons covering two stages. Different variables were measured on the two forage plants. Growth variables included: plant height (cm), plant fresh weight (gm), plant dry weight (gm), moisture content per plant (gm), and the number of leaves per plant. Some physiological variables were also measured for the two forage plants. They were photosynthesis rate (micro mol CO2 m-2 S-I), stomatal conductance (mol H2O m-2 S-I and transpiration rate (mmol H2O m-2 S-1). Some environmental variables were also measured. These included air temperature (°C), solar radiation (J m-2 S-1) and soil temperature (°C). The data of the treated plots were expressed as relative values to the data of the control plots. The statistical analysis was made on these relative values. The results indicated that there were no significant effects on the two forage plants up to the age of eighteen months of the trees in the hedgerows. At the age of twenty months of the trees there were significant effects on the two forage plants. For the quantitative factor of the trial (hedgerow spacing) seventeen regression equations of the different variables hedgerow spacing were obtained. The seventeen regression equations indicated positively linear relationships at 1% level of significance according to the method of orthogonal polynomials. Four of these equations were obtained for Albizia lebbeck. They were regression equations of relative air temperature in the plots of dolichos, relative photosynthesis rate of dolichos, relative stomatal conductance of sorghum and relative transpiration rate of sorghum on hedgerow spacing. other seven equations were obtained for Eucalyptus camaldulensis They were regression equations of relative air temperature in the plots of dolichos , relative air temperature in the plots of sorghum, relative photosynthesis rate of dolichos, relative stomatal conductance of dolichos, relative transpiration rate of dolichos, relative stomatal conductance of sorghum and relative transpiration rate of sorghum on hedgerow spacing. Other six equations were obtained for Parkinsonia aculeata. They were regression equations of relative air temperature in the plots of dolichos, relative air temperature in the plots of sorghum, relative photosynthesis rate of dolichos, relative stomatal conductance of dolichos, relative transpiration rate of dolichos and relative transpiration rate of sorghum on hedgerow spacing. For the qualitative factor of the trial (tree species), Albizia lebbeck gave the highest significant positive effect on the two forage plants followed by Eucalyptus camaldulensis and then Parkinsonia aculeata.