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    علاقات الأرض والتحضر الشامل في دار السلام، موانزا والخرطوم
    (University of Khartoum, ) ., صلاح الدين محمود عثمان ; ., جمال محمود حامد ; ., تهليل عثمان وني ; ., الكندي حسن العاقب
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    Identification of Anopheles Species of the Funestus Group and their Role in Malaria Transmission in Sudan
    (University of Khartoum, ) Makhawi, Abdelrafie M. ; Aboud, Mariam A. ; El Raba’a, Fathi M. ; Osman, Omran F. ; Elnaiem, Dia-Edin A. ; Department of Zoology
    Anopheles mosquitoes of the Funestus group are important vectors of malaria in Africa. Although species of the group were known to occur in Sudan, there are no published reports on their involvement in malaria transmission. This study was carried out to elucidate the role of species of the Funestus group in malaria transmission in eastern Sudan. A total of 540 mosquitoes morphologically identified as members of the Funestus group were collected by Pyrthrum Spray Catch method from the Tabaldia, Batta and El Rugab villages in Gadaref State, Eastern Sudan during November 1999 – November 2000 and in December 2004 and subjected to species-specific PCR typing. This analysis demonstrated the existence of three An. funestus species in Sudan; namely An. rivulorum Leeson (60% of specimens), An. funestus Giles (29%) and An. leesoni (11%). To investigate the role An. funestus in transmission of malaria parasites a group of 92 females of this species were subjected to Plasmodium species-specific ELISA analysis. The only Plasmodium species found in the salivary glands of An. funestus was P. malariae, which showed a total infection rate of 7.6% (7/92). The presence of these three species of the Funestus group in Sudan emphasizes the need to define their spatial and temporal distribution, their behaviour and ecology and their overall role in malaria transmission within Sudan. Results are discussed in relation to the epidemiology of malaria.
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    Visceral Leishmaniasis The PCR and Direct Agglutination Test for Diagnosis and Management
    (University of Khartoum, ) Osman, Omran F. ; Department of Zoology
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    Seroprevalence Of Visceral Leishmaniasis Using Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) In Tabark Allah Village, Eastern Sudan, 2010
    (University of Khartoum, ) Elawad, Mohammed A ; Ali, Kamil M ; gabbad, Abdelsafi A ; Osman, Omran F. ; Musa, Ahmed M ; Department of Zoology
    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a protozoan disease caused by Leishmania donovani and transmitted by phlebotomus sand fly. The disease is endemic in Sudan and large area of tropics. It has been reported in eastern Sudan since the beginning of the twentieth century. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Tabark Allah Village, eastern Sudan to measure the seroprevalence of visceral Leishmaniasis. Samples of blood sera were collected from 373 individuals selected by systematic random technique. The samples were examined using Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) to detect the antileishmania antibodies. Demographic and socio-economic data were obtained by direct interview with the study group using a pre-tested questionnaire.The seroprevalence at a cut off ≥ reciprocal titre of 3200 was found to be 17.2% which was more prevalent among children (70.2%) with p value of 0.000, compared to adults. Family income had a significant association with the seroprevalence of visceral Leishmaniasis (p value: 0.05).
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    Some Preliminary Studies on the Haemolytic Activity of the Venom of Four Viper Species
    (University of Khartoum, ) Osman, Omran F. ; Saeed, Sara, A. K. ; Allam, T. M ; Department of Zoology
    Snake venom is a complex mixture of biologically active chemicals which have haemolytic, neruotoxic, and myotoxic effects. The venomous snakes of the family Viperidae have definite haemolytic effects. This study was conducted to determine the haemolytic activity of the venom of four viper species, two of them were Sudanese species Echis carienatus and Bitis arietans, and the other two were Egyptian species Cerastes cerastes and Pseudocerstes persicus by using blood agar plates of the domestic rabbit. The haemolytic activity showed some variation but with no significant differences among the four vipers. The electrophoresis using Polyacylamide Gel (PAGE) was applied to the venom samples of the two Sudanese viper species Echis carienatus and Bities arietans to compare their protein components. Some different banding patterns were shown in the protein profile of their venoms. The toxicity of viper venoms does not only depend on the haemolytic activity, as the venom of each viper is a complicated mixture of toxic materials that differ in quantity, composition and effects.