Vol. 5, No. 2, 1997

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    Some Financial Aspects of Fattening Baggara and Kenana Bulls
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1997) Gumaa, A.Y. ; Babiker, S.A. ; Elkhidir, O.A. ; Rage, E.
    A total of thirty bulls representing Baggara and Kenana breeds (15 animals each) were used in this study. The initial feedlot weights were 180 ± 10.4 and 182.0 ± 8.2 kg for the two breeds, respectively. Baggara bulls attained the target weight of 350 kg at a shorter average fattening period than those of Kenana breed (28 vs. 30 weeks, respectively). The average daily weight gain, adjusted liveweight and average dry matter intake were higher, feed conversion ratio values were better and carcass weights were heavier in Baggara bulls than in Kenana. Significant breed differences were noted in daily weight gain only at 30, 60 and 90 day feeding periods. The feed conversion ratio was significantly different between breeds only at 30 day feeding period. The financial analysis showed that Baggara bulls generated more revenue and had higher percent profit (30% vs. 10%) than Kenana because of their better feedlot traits, relatively lower initial purchase price and non-feed costs. Some suggestions are made to improve the marketing methods of beef cattle, viz. young finished bulls (350 kg liveweight) should be sold at a ceiling price; intensification of beef cattle for export is a must to improve both the quality and quantity and to compete in the foreign trade; an animal- kind-crop is suggested
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    Effect of Type of Milk on the Quality of While Soft Cheese
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1997) Abdalla, M.O. ; Abdel Razig, K.A.
    The effect of type of milk on the quality of white soft cheese was investigated. Three milk samples (cows', goats', and mixed) were used. Milk was heat-treated at 72°C for one minute and cooled to 45°C, and NaCl (2% w/v), CaCl2 (0.02%) and rennet (one tablet/50 kg milk) were added. After coagulation, the curd was cut into cubes and whey was drained. The curd was then pressed in wooden moulds lined with cheese cloth overnight. The curd was removed from moulds and stored in salted whey (8% w/v) in cans (anti-acid, anti-sulphur), sealed and stored at room temperature (about 25°C) for 60 days. Chemical and sensory characteristics of cheese were determined. The results showed that cheese yield was significantly affected (P<0.01) by the type of milk. Cheese yield from cows' milk (19.08%) was the highest, followed by mixed milk cheese (17.65%) and goats' milk cheese (15.33%). The fat, protein and total solids contents were highest in cows' milk cheese, while ash content and pH value were highest in cheese made from goats' milk. The sensory characteristics showed that cheese made from the three types of milk scored well until day 45, and then began to deteriorate. Cheese from cows' milk was the best, followed by goats' milk and mixed milk.
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    Rooting Response of Western Soapberry Cuttings to Some Rooting Hormones
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1997) Abu Elgasim, Z.H. ; Khatamian, H.
    Softwood cuttings of Western soapberry plant (Sapindus drommondii Hook and Arns) were dipped for 5 seconds in 5 000, 10 000, 20 000, and 30 000 ppm of IBA, IBA + NAA and NAA solutions. The treated cuttings were inserted in a rooting medium consisting of 3 parts peat moss and 7 parts perlite. The results revealed that application of different concentrations of IBA or IBA + NAA was associated with greater values of rooting percentage and number, length and fresh weight of roots compared to the control. The least values of these measured parameters were associated with application of NAA at different concentrations, especially at the highest concentration (30 000 ppm).
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    A Note on the Response of Three Onion (Allium cepa L.) Cultivars to Infection with VAM-fungi and Onion Yellow Dwarf Virus (OYDV)
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1997) Idris, E.E. ; Elsheikh, E.A.E. ; El Hassan, S.M.
    Onion seedlings of three cultivars; namely, "Saggai", "Dongola" and "Texas Early Grano 502", were inoculated with VAM, OYDV and both VAM and OYDV. The results indicated that "Texas Early Grano 502" was resistant to the virus, while "Saggai" and "Dongola" were susceptible. The VAM inoculation significantly improved some of the growth, yield and quality of "Dongola". In mixed infection with OYDV, VAM caused pronounced enhancement in these components over the virus-infected onion plants. Similarly, "Saggai" infected with OYDV responded significantly to VAM inoculation, whereas "Texas Early Grano 502" did not benefit from this interaction, in the presence or absence of OYDV infection.
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    Watermelon Chlorotic Stunt Geminivirus (WCSV): Transmission and Disease Spread.
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1997) Marchelo, P.W. ; Dafalla, G.A. ; Mohammed, Y.F.
    The rate of transmission was found to be 5.29 using ten whiteflies/test for WCSV isolate in the Gezira locality, but transmission by a single whitefly was not successful. The virus could be acquired in one hour (12.5%), but acquisition access period (AAP) required for 50% infection of test plants was four hours. Also, one hour inoculation access period (IAP) was sufficient to achieve 11.1% transmission, while 8-12 hours IAP was necessary to achieve 50% infection of test plants. Under field conditions, disease incidence was correlated positively with sowing date and whitefly numbers. Disease foci appeared four weeks after sowing and subsequent spread was random and not affected by wind characteristics. Highest disease incidence levels (above 80%) were recorded in June and August sowing, while lowest incidence levels (below 5%) were recorded in December sowing.