Vol. 5, No. 1, 1997
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ItemA Note of the Isolation of Starter Culture for the Manufacture of Sudanese White Cheese(Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1997)A study was carried out to isolate and identify the lactic acid bacteria in white cheese and raw milk, and to select suitable organisms that could be used as starter cultures for white cheese manufacture. Seven different isolates were identified as Streptococcus faecalis, S. cremoris, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermis and three species of the genus Bacillus. S. cremoris was used as lactic starter culture in manufacturing white cheese using pasturized milk. The cheese was subjected to organoleptic tests, which indicated that it had good taste, which indicated that it had good taste and flavour.
ItemProduction of Mudaffara Cheese from Standardised Cows' Milk(Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1997)Mudaffara cheese was produced from standardised cows' milk (2% fat) and cows' milk fortified with 2.5% and 5% skim milk powder. Cheese yield from different milk samples was recorded and the chemical constituents of cheese were analysed. A standard procedure for the production of Mudaffara cheese is described. The results of this investigation showed that fortification of fresh cows' milk with skim milk powder increased yield and improved texture and appearance of cheese. Variations in chemical constituents were very little between the three treatments.
ItemNet Income Effects of Co-operative Groundnut Production in the Traditional Sector of Sudan(Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1997)The small farmers of the rural communities in the traditional sector in the Sudan are facing many problems. Examples include absence of modern inputs, reliance on hand tools, human labour and unavailability of a credit system. These result in small size farmers and their rural communities facing low standard of living. Co-operative organizations have allowed some farmers to help themselves and thus their communities toward improved production and enhanced income. This study was carried out to investigate the impact of supply co-operatives on farmers' net income due to membership in established agricultural co-operatives. Specifically, the focus is on groundnut production within En- Nahud Governorate in West Kordofan State of western Sudan. The overall econometric specification of the model fits the data very well. With respect to the findings of the study, the most important variable in the model is co-operative membership. The farmers' average net income was found to be significantly affected by the co-operative membership; there exists a positive relationship between being a co- operative member and average net income per "mukhamas" (0.73 ha) of groundnut. This result indicates that the co-operative contributes to its members' average net income from groundnut.
ItemConstruction of Height Tariff Tables for Eucalyptus Plantations in the Rahad Irrigated Scheme (Sudan)(Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1997)Proper management of irrigated forest plantations requires special management aids. Tariff tables are among the most important tools in managing forest plantations. This study presents tariff tables for Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. microtheca in the Rahad Agricultural scheme. For the construction of the tariff tables, 114 trees of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and 75 trees of E. microtheca were felled and their stems measured in order to determine their diameters at breast height and actual volumes. Using regression techniques, the relationships between diameters and volumes of the stems of each group of data were determined. The strong correlation between these parameters (diameter and volume) made it possible to construct the tariff tables. Using those tariff tables, volumes of trees of the above mentioned tree species can be calculated by measuring diameters only. This saves a lot of time spent in forest inventories. The tariff tables presented here are applicable for the irrigated plantations of the Rahad Agricultural Scheme. Their use elsewhere or for those of coppice origin requires careful tests.
ItemThe Influence of Prunings of Leucaena leucocephala and Eucalyptus microtheca Used as Green Mulch on the Growth and Yield of Fodder Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)- A Preliminary Study(Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1997)A study was conducted in the University of Khartoum Demonstration Farm to determine the effect of prunings of Leucaena leucocephala and Eucalyptus microtheca used as green mulch on the growth and yield of fodder sorghum (var. Abu Sabein). The experimental design was randomized complete block with five replicates. Four different weights of prunings were applied to the treatment plots with one plot used as control. Prunings were incorporated into the surface soil and left for three to four weeks before sowing the fodder which was then regularly irrigated and allowed to grow for seventy days. Sample plants from the middle of each plot were assessed for yield, plant height, leaf area, number of leaves per plant and crude protein, calcium and phosphorus content. The results showed that Leucaena leucocephala prunings remarkably enhanced growth and yield relative to the control plots. On the other hand, Eucalyptus microtheca prunings did not affect the yield or the performance of fodder sorghum. The effect was positively related to the quantity of green mulch applied.