Vol. 4, No. 2, 1996

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    A Note on Clleulolytic Fungi: Isolation and Preliminary Study of Cellulase System
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1996) Ayoub, F.N. ; Dirar, H. A.
    Three cellulose decomposing fungi were isolated from local habitats, and, based on cultural and morphological characteristics, were tentatively identified as Chaetomium sp., Trichoderma sp. and Isolate F1 (unknown). The results of this preliminary study showed that the three isolates had complete cellulase system. It is also suspected that Chaetomim sp. and Trichoderma sp. may have a reasonable level of endoglucanase and exoglucanase. On the other hand, isolate F1 may possess a weak exoglucanase but a strong exoglucanase. These suspicions were in line with the results obtained when the cultural filtrates of the isolates were examined quantitatively for the enzymatic activities.
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    Resolving the Food Problem in Dry- lands Farming :Application of a Mathematical Programming Approach to Um Rawaba Area, Sudan
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1996) Elamin, E.M. ; Ibrahim, K. ; Shomo, F.
    A linear programming (LP) technique was used to model the farming conditions of the small holder dry lands farmers in North Kordofan State with the objective of resolving the food production situation. The study used three farm models; namely, (1) a profit maximization LP model, (2) a profit maximization with a consumption constraint model, and (3) the Target MOTAD to obtain risk optimal farm plans. The study showed that the farmers had a better chance of securing their consumption by applying the risk optimal farm plan. This farm plan suggests that a farmer plants not less than 50% of his total land holding with food crops, especially millet, and also concentrates on production of the cash crop groundnut rather than sesame. The study also highlighted the distortion of the farmer's decision making process, due to prevailed agricultural policy, as a major cause behind the deteriorating food situation.
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    Utilization of Solanum dubium Fresen for Cheese Making
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1996) Mohamed, B.E. ; Habani, E.S.
    An investigation was carried out on aqueous extracts of Solanum dubium Fresen, ("Gubbain"), for their milk coagulating properties. A comparative study was then made between "Gubbain" extracts and animal rennet activities at variable pH values, temperature and calcium chloride concentrations. The activities of both extracts were affected by the different parameters studied. The similarities between the two extracts suggested the enzymatic nature of the "Gubbain" extract, and thus its suitability for cheese-making was tested. All the observed differences between the "Gubbain" and rennet cheeses were statistically not significant. This suggests that dried "Gubbain" berries can be used satisfactorily in the manufacture of comparable commercial white soft cheese ("Gibna beida").
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    Effect of Some Nursery Practices on Quality and Field Performance of Acacia senegal Seedlings in Western Sudan
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1996) Ballal, M.E.
    The success of Acacia senegal nursery stock under field conditions in western Sudan is adversely affected by lack of standard nursery techniques. The objective of this study was to find out the best cultural package for western Sudan by studying the effect of sowing date, light intensity and irrigation frequency on seedlings in the nursery. The use of 50% light intensity in the form of overhead shade significantly increased initial height, growth and survival in the nursery, but slightly depressed growth under field conditions. On the other hand, high light intensity (100%) with once every two days irrigation in the nursery significantly increased root development and high seedling mortality in the nursery, and gave the highest survival rate in the field. Late sowing produced reasonable height growth and survival, in addition to reducing the nursery period by 6-8 weeks. Therefore, the study suggests late sowing with 50% overhead shade and once a day irrigation for the production of Acacia senegal nursery stock.
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    Restoration of Soil Fertility Under Leucaena leucocephala (lan.) Alley Cropping
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1996) El Nour, M. ; Osman, K. A. ; El Atta, A.
    An experiment was conducted to study the role of integrated leguminous forest trees in restoring soil fertility. Leucaena leucocephala (Lan.) seedlings were planted at Shambat Demonstration Farm, Sudan, in three inter-row spacings: 2, 3, and 4 m with three intra-row spacings: 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 m. The soil was analyzed before planting leucaena seedlings and during the second season. Maize was grown between the hedgerows of leucaena for two successive seasons. Pruning of the trees was carried out four times during the second season of the maize crop, and the tender parts were mulched in the respective plots. The results revealed that the amount of mulch was affected (P£0.05) by inter-row and intra-row spacings. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents of the soil showed no significant differences (P£0.05) with depth (0-30, 30-60 and 60-90 cm) and with the amount of mulch.