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ItemConceptual Metaphors in English and Arabic: A Contrastive Study(university of khartoum, 2015)The 1980s witnessed the emergence of the revolutionary Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) that has inspired researchers to study metaphor from a cognitive approach rather than from a rhetoric decorative viewpoint that has been adopted since antiquity. This thesis aims to contribute to the relatively modern science, cognitive linguistics (CL), by comparing Arabic to English in the field of conceptual metaphors of emotions. The study focuses on metaphors of happiness, anger and love as they are three of the basic human emotions.An implied objective of this cross-cultural study is to benefit the fields of translation and Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL), because cognitive linguists believe that the metaphor is a characteristic of thought, not just words. If Arabic is similar to English in conceptual metaphors, then learners of English will find figurative language less complicated and translators can transfer meanings between the two languages better. To arrive to the objectives set by the researcher, the study has adopted an analytical descriptive approach for data analysis. It investigates whether the conceptual metaphors of HAPPINESS, ANGER and LOVE in Arabic are expressed in a similar way to those in English. The study, hence, contributes to prove the hypothetical universality of conceptual metaphors by adding Arabic to the list of languages already investigated and found similar to English as a result of similar physically embodied experiences among human beings.The study depended on the website www.Arabicorpus.com as a tool for research on linguistic metaphors in Arabic. 'Arabicorpus' is chosen to be the main source of Arabic data, because it contains a large body of Arabic literature in different genres. English metaphors discussed are those used by CMT pioneers. Comparison and data analysis prove that Arabic expresses the emotions of happiness, anger and love in similar ways to those of English, because of similar embodied experiences of human beings. However, there are significant differences that are culture-specific, resulting from the conditions that affect each culture separately. Therefore, one can say that conceptual metaphors are partly universal, but not totally universal. Owing to the importance of metaphors and their pervasiveness in everyday language, the study suggests that researchers direct their attention to them, especially in relation to fields like translation and TEFL
ItemPhonetic And Phonological Study Of The Tima Language(University of Khartoum, 2015-06-14)The present study attempts to describe the phonetic/phonological system of Tima language, a Kordofanian language spoken in the Nuba Mountains of the Sudan. The main objective of this study is to provide on the one hand a basic description of the phonology of Tima. It gives a systematic description of the Tima segments (consonants and vowels), tone system, morphophonological alternations, with more focus upon vowel harmony system. On the other hand, it documents Tima as one of Sudan endangered languages. The study adopts a descriptive analytical approach. Primary data was collected during field work held in different places and time. In 2006, it was in Khartoum North (al-Dorooshaab) where the majority of the Tima speakers of Khartoum live. Between Feb. 22 and Feb. 30 2007, it was in the Tima area in the Nuba Mountains. Regular formal sessions are held in the researcher’s office at the Linguistic Department, University of Khartoum. The data was elicited from a database word list of about 2000 words which had been recorded and transferred into audio-files. Secondary data were elicited from several writings on phonetics and phonology. XIII This study came out with the following findings: 1. Tima has a number of 22 consonants and 12 vowels 2. The vowel inventory is divided equally in terms of the feature [ATR] 3. Tima has a two-tone system with a downstep. 4. Tima has a root-controlled harmony system based in the [ATR] feature in addition to [back] and [front] feature. 5. There are tone classes for nouns, verbs and adjectives
ItemPhonology of Fur language(uofk, 2015-06-13)This work is mainly concerned with phonology of Fur Language .It aims at examining scientifically, the various aspects of the phonology of this language. This should include phenomina such as : the phonemic distribution and realization, plural morpheme realization as well as tone question in this particular language.A special attention is given to examining the exact number of phonemes.The study is carried out through stages of phonic to phonemic recording of speech sounds of native speakers .The contribution made in this work is reflected in the fact that we managed to examine through the process of minimal pairs, the distribution of the various phonemes in different environments of the word.Hence for establishing the phonological rules we elicited out all possible realizations (allophones) in each environment of certain words then we stated them formulaically in accordance with the rules of generative phonology . We did the same thing with plural morpheme realizations which take place in nouns and adjectives .Finally we came to the following phonological rules:phonemic distribution rules,clustering rules,allophonic rules such as aspiration ,devoicing, release/unrelease, clear/dark/l/ and vowel nasalization rules.As for morphophonemic rules ,we have arrived at the following :insertion,deletion,assimilation and nasalization rules.