Vol. 4, No. 1, 1996

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    Yield and Forage Quality of Fodder Sorghum at Different Stages of Growth and Different Ratoon Cuttings.
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1996) Ibrahim, Y.M.
    Fodder sorghums {Sorghum bicolor var. Abu-sabeen and Sorghum bicolor x Sorghum sudanensis (Piper) Stamf. var. Pioneer} were sown to compare quality and quantity of different cuts and growth stages. The results showed that Pioneer yielded more than Abu-sabeen. The yield was higher at the second cut for Pioneer, while it decreased significantly for Abu-sabeen from the first to the third cuts. The percent reduction in yield between the first and third cuts was 39% and 49% for Pioneer and Abu-sabeen, respectively. The first cut of the two forages showed the same quality value while Pioneer was superior for the second cut. Forage yield and crude fibre increased significantly for the two crops with age, while crude protein percent decreased. Comparison between the percent increase of forage with the percent decrease in quality indicated that the best stage of cutting was when the crops were at 25% bloom.
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    Effect of In-situ Water Harvesting and Contour Bunding on Yield of Sorghum in Marginal Lands.
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1996) Omer, M.A. ; Elamin, E.M.
    As a result of in-situ testing of rain water harvesting, for four seasons at on-station research level, chisel ploughing together with contour bunding technique have been chosen as appropriate means of water harvesting and conservation measures. The technique was tested on marginally cultivated, hard compacted soil of relatively low infiltration rates, locally known as "gardud" (sandy clay). This type of soil is of good farming potential if appropriate soil and water management techniques are undertaken. The aim of using this technique is to improve the ability of "gardud" soil to absorb and conserve water, to alleviate the effect of long dry spells by harvesting surface runoff to increase soil water storage for earlier and better plant establishment and hence to increase yield. The chisel and contour bunding every 10 metres were better than the control flat technique in improving soil physical properties and increasing soil water storage. The effect was reflected in highly significant sorghum plant establishment and growth. Both grain and dry matter yields were significantly increased by chisel and contour bunding. The technique increased grain yield by 152% over the control. Also, contour and non-contour treatments produced 1277 kg/ha and 1016 kg/ha, respectively, for the mean of chisel and flat treatments with 25.7% increase.The economic analysis indicated a 204% marginal rate of return for chisel polugh with contour over chisel alone. Even contour bunding with flat cultivation has doubled the economic return compared to the traditional flat alone. Therefore, this improved technology is economically superior to the traditional cultivation. Furthermore, it can be adopted to utilize- "gardud" soil as an alternative to, and to relief pressure from, exhausted and continuously cultivated poor "goz" sandy soil.
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    Studies on the Microbiology of Fresh Goats' Milk
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1996) Muddathir, A.
    A microbiological investigation for hygiene and types of contamination of fresh goats' milk was conducted. The results indicated very high viable bacterial count. The bacteria isolated and identified were coliform bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, S. bovis, S. thermophilus, Streptococcus group E, Lactobacillus casei, L. bulgaricus, Bacillus sp., but Salmonella sp. and Shigella sp. were not detected. Yeast's species isolated were Saccharomyces exeguus, Klnyveromyces marxiemes and Brettanomyces sp. Different types of moulds were present. The results are discussed according to the standards of milk and the importance of lactic acid bacteria and yeast isolated.
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    Factors Influencing Cellulase Production by Chaetomium spirale (Zopf) Grown on Cotton Fibre.
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1996) Ayoub, F.N. ; Dirar, H.A.
    The factors influencing cellulase activity of Chaetomium spirale (Zopf) grown on cotton fibre were examined. Culture filtrates of the oraganism gave highest activities when grown for eight days in a stationary liquid culture at 30°C in a cellulose-mineral medium with an initial pH value of 4.2. Addition of small quantities (0.1% w/v) of proteose peptone of casein hydrolysate markedly improved enzyme activity and so did the weekly transfer to a fresh cellulose-mineral medium of the fungus inoculum.
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    A Study on Production of Nursery Stock of Sidir (Ziziphus spina-christi Linn.)
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1996) Hussein, N.M.A. ; El Nour, M. ; Osman, K. A.
    The impact of three soil media (sand, clay loam and sand: clay loam mixture), three watering intervals (2, 4 and 6 days) and two provenances (Nyala and Um-Syala) on the production of nursery stock of Ziziphus spina-christi Linn. was investigated under nursery conditions. The results showed that the best conditions to produce nursery stock of Ziziphus spina-christi were to sow seeds directly in polythene bags containing sand:clay loam mixture (50:50) and to provide daily watering for six weeks for initial establishment, and watering every four days thereafter under open conditions. Nyala seedlings gave the best performance under all treatment combinations.