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    Detection of Micro Invasion In Verrucous Carcinoma Using Syndecan-1 Stain
    (University of Khartoum, ) Elhassan, Aisha Khidir Babiker ; Ahmed Mohammed Suleiman ; Department of Oral Pathology
    Background: Verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a low grade rare variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC). Syndecan-1 is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan which participates in cell to cell adhesion and cell matrix interaction. This study aimed to describe the histopathological features of VC on Hematoxyline and Eosin (H&E) and assess syndecan-1 expression in VC cases. This was an observational analytical study of 34 paraffin blocks of specimens of oral VC retrieved from The Oral Pathology Laboratory, Faculty of Dentistry University of Khartoum in the period (2006-2014). Methods: The study involved 34 paraffin blocks specimens of oral VC cases. Relevant clinical data were retrieved from the archive of the laboratory. Two control groups are used for syndecan-1 IHC consisting of 24 paraffin blocks specimens of different grade of oral epithelial dysplasia and 9 paraffin blocks specimens of normal oral mucosa. Results: On H&E examination about half of cases showed the classical features of VC and the other half showed some cytological changes and minute foci suggestive micro-invasion. There was variation in syndecan-1 intensity; The majority of the VC cases (94.1%) showed loss of syndecan-1 expression and loss was greater than loss in dysplastic control group which showed loss of syndecan-1 expression in (87.50%) of the cases. There was a change in the positivity area of syndecan-1 in (50.1%) of the VC cases. Sixty four per cent of the cases showed presence of foci of micro-invasion and of loss syndecan-1 expression. Conclusion: Highly statistically significant association was found between presence of suggestive micro-invasion in H&E and loss of syndecan-1 expression in micro-invasive area.
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    Anaemia in Protein - Calorie Malnutrition in Sudanes Children
    (University of Khartoum, ) أحمد, ميرغني علي محمد
    Anaemia in Protein - Calorie Malnutrition in Sudanes Children
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    Detection of Microalbuminuria in spot urine sample of Adults with type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Khartoum State
    (University of Khartoum, 2015-11-12) Elhassan, Safaa Ali Mohamed ; A.H. Khattab ; Department of Pathology
    Background: Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of chronic renal disease and a major cause of cardiovascular mortality. Diabetic nephropathy has been categorized into two stages: microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria. Microalbuminuria (MAU) is defined as the presence of albumin in urine above the normal level but below the detectable range of conventional urine dipstick methods. Its presence is an early marker of diabetic nephropathy. Its screening is made by measuring albumin in spot urine sample. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of microalbumin in spot urine samples of patients with type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Khartoum state by using immunometric technique (Nyocard instrument) and compare it with the healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: A comparative case-control study was carried out in Khartoum Teaching Hospital from March to May 2012. One hundred subjects were divided equally between case and control groups and both were matched in age (18-40 years) and sex (27 males and 23 females). Random urine samples were tested for proteinuria using urine strips. Positive samples were excluded from the study. Negative samples were tested again for the presence of microalbumin using instrument which has an antigen antibody captured technique for microalbumin molecule with a detection limit of 5-200mgL/l. Results: The frequency of microalbuminuria was (34%) in the test group compared to (14%) in the control group. The mean value for microalbuminuria in the test group (63.8) was higher than that for the control group (41.1). Positive microalbuminuria cases in the test group (58.5%) were males while (41.2%) were females .The development of (MAU) increases with the duration of type 1 diabetes mellitus. . Conclusion: The frequency of microalbuminuria was higher in diabetics than healthy individuals with a higher mean value , and its development was strongly correlated with increased duration of diabetes. No significant correlation was found between development of microalbuminuria and patient’s gender. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus for more than five years should be tested for microalbumunuria .
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    Accuracy Of Renal Angiography In Living Donor Kidney Transplantation
    (University of Khartoum, 2015-04-08) Azmi, Yousif ; Osman Abdal Wahab Abdalla ; Radiology
    This study was done to asses the accuracy of renal angiography in the actual living donors renal transplantation ,as compared to operative findings in renal transplant unit–Ahmed Gasim Hospital ,Khartoum North –Sudan. A retrospective hospital data based study. It include (100) donors, males (67) and females (33), done within December 2000- dec.2004. The age ranged between (18-50years), while the majority (20-30 yrs.).The predominant number of donors originates from northern Sudan (50.6%).The 1st degree relationship between donors and recipients (91.8%), mainly brothers (56.4%) and sisters (21.8%) Angiographicaly single renal artery was found in 92 (92%) in right kidney and 85 (85%) in the left. In all donors the length of the renal arteries was found to be normal. Also the caliber of the renal arteries was found angiographicaly normal for donation. Based on angiographic finding the left kidney selected for donation in (84) donors while right in (16) only. After nephrectomy, surgically the donated kidneys was found of a single renal artery in (93.9%) compared to (6.1%) of a double renal artery. Surgically the length of renal arteries of all donated kidneys was found normal. Also the caliber of renal arteries found to be normal surgically. Renal angiography was found very accurate in detecting the single renal artery in the right kidney (100%) while (96%) in the left kidney. Also in case of multiple renal arteries, renal angiography more accurate in right (100%) while (60%) in the left. This in comparison to surgical findings. Accuracy of renal angiography in evaluating the length of the renal artery was (100%) accurate. Also was (100%) in evaluating the caliber of the renal arteries as compared with the surgical findings. Based on the accuracy of renal angiography, it can be used as radiological tools in evaluating the renal blood supply, as well as other organs in human body.
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    Evaluation of renal function in obstructive nephropathy by I.V.U versus isotope renal scan
    (UOFK, 2015-04-07) Faraj, Ayad ; Dr. Hago Mustafa Ali ; Clinical Radiology,
    The study is performed prospectively conducted at radioisotope center in Khartoum, RICK. 75 cases of different age groups of obstructive uropathy was selected whose diagnosed by IVU in different centers, Male (48) 64% ,Female ((27) 36%. The onset of presentation was acute (2) 2.7% , chronic (66) 88.0% , acute on chronic (7) 9.3% . The radio opaque shadows was seen as a cause of obstruction in(52) 69.3%, and not seen in (23) 30.7% .The radio opaque shadows was Single in (32)42.7%, Multiple in (20)26.7%. The IVU shows (40)53.3% with non functioning kidneys, the remaining (35)46.7% were different grades of obstruction. The ureter was normal in (40) 53.3%, dilated in (2) 2.7%, Not seen in (33) 44.0%. The bladder was Normal in (75)100%. Forty percent (53.3% non-visualizing kidneys on excretory urography were studied with Tc99m scintiscanning. In (29)38.7% no blood flow , in (11)14.7% little blood flow were demonstrated on nucleide scanning. The relative perfusion was 1-10.9% in (14)18.7% patients, 11-20.9% in (15)20.0%, 21-30.9% in (7)9.3% , 31-40.9% in (3)4.0% & 41-50.9% in (1)1.3% patient. The relative function was less than 1% in (3)4.0%patients, 1-10.9% in (30)40.0%, 11-20.9% in (5)6.7% & 21-30.9% in (2)2.7% patients. Different grades of obstructive uropathy were studied ; In (2)2.7% grade 1 show normal blood flow and relative perfusion of 41-50.9% and 51-60.9%, while relative function were 41-50.9% and 51-60.9% respectively. In 7 cases of grade 2; (4)5.3% patients show normal blood flow, (3)4.0% show moderate blood flow, (2)2.7% show relative perfusion 31-40.9%, (4)5.3% relative perfusion 41-50.9% and (1)1.3% relative perfusion 51-60.9%, Relative function show 31-40.9% in (3)4.0%, 41-50.9% in (2)2.7% patients & 61-70.9% in (2)2.7% patients. In 21 cases of grade 3; (10)13.3% show little blood flow and (11)14.7% moderate blood flow. The relative perfusion shows 21-30.9% in (8)10.7% patients, 31-40.9% in (6)8.0% patients, 41-50.9% in (4)5.3% patients and 51-60.9% in (3)4.0% patients. The relative function shows 11-20.9% in (6)8.0% patients, 21-30.9% in (6)8.0% patients, 31- 40.9% in (8)10.7% patients & 41-50.9% in (1)1.3%patient. In 8 cases of grade 4; (7)9.3% show little blood flow and (1)1.3% moderate blood flow, (5)6.7% patients show relative perfusion of 21-30.9%, in (3)4.0% patients is 31-40.9%. The relative function is 1-10.9% in (4)5.3% patients, 11-20.9% in (3)4.0% patients, 31-40.9% in (1)1.3% patient.