Department of Family Sciences

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    Food Consumption Pattern, Nutritional status and Prevalence of Nutritional Anaemia among Pregnant Women in East Nile Locality Khartoum State – 2019
    (University of Khartoum, 2021) Hafsa Abdalmalik Mohammad Albashir
    Abstract Title of study: Food Consumption Pattern, Nutritional status and Prevalence of Nutritional Anaemia among Pregnant Women in East Nile Locality Khartoum State Name: Hafsa Abdalmalik Mohammad Albashir Degree: Ph.D. in Family Sciences (Nutrition and Dietetics) This study was undertaken to assess food consumption pattern, nutritional status and the prevalence of nutritional anaemia among 185 a sample of pregnant women with a mean of ages 31.2 (±7.3) years in East Nile Locality Khartoum State. The prevailing types of nutritional anaemia (iron deficiency, folic acid deficiency or vitamin B12 deficiency or a combination of two or all) among the pregnant, as well as the association between their socioeconomic conditions and nutritional anaemia were also determined. A questionnaire was used to collect data and information on the pregnant age, an anthropometry, dietary intake, families' socioeconomic status, housing conditions, medical history, obstetric history, stool, urine, malaria and blood investigation (Hb level, serum ferritin and peripheral blood picture). Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 21). Results showed that 32.4% of the pregnant women were having nutritional anaemia, 15.1% of them suffered from IDA, (9.2%) had megaloblastic anaemia (Folic acid or B12) and 8.1% had mixed anaemia (IDA and megaloblastic anaemia). Less than 1/5 of nutritional anaemic had severe nutritional anaemia Hb level (< 7.0g/dl), whereas 2.7% had moderate anaemia. 19.5% of pregnant women were micronutrients deficiency (iron deficiency). From socioeconomic point of view, it was found that a higher percentage of nutritional anaemia 20% of pregnant women were secondary school and 9.3% of pregnant women their husbands had intermediate school and a secondary school of the same percentage. Around the half (41.9%) of husbands had government employee and more than three fourth of pregnant women were unemployed (housewives). There was highly significant difference (P<0.000) between prevalence of nutritional anaemia and previous abortions. Consumption patterns of milk and milk products and oils, fat and sugar by nutritional anaemia were significantly (P<0.000). The adequacy of all nutrients intake were highly significant difference with nutritional anaemia (P<0.000), more than half of the pregnant women (51.8%) were meeting the minimum dietary diversity of consuming foods from at least five of the ten food groups. The BMI of the pregnant reflects their nutritional status that 32.4% were overweight; however, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.048) between prevalence of nutritional anaemia and nutritional status. In conclusion nutritional anaemia and micronutrients deficiencies should be considered as a major health problem among pregnant women that need to formulate and launch strategy which takes into consideration special attention in prevalence surveys and efforts to reduce both nutritional anaemia and micronutrients deficiency incidences, or at least give the same importance to both, as given to other nutrients. مستخلص عنوان الدراسة: نمط إستهلاك الغذاء، الحالة التغذوية و انتشار فقر الدم التغذوي وسط النساء الحوامل بمحلية شرق النيل ولاية الخرطوم الاسم: حفصة عبد الملك محمد البشير الدرجة: دكتوراه الفلسفة في العلوم الأسرية ( التغذية الصحية والعلاجية) أجريت هذه الدراسة لتقييم نمط إستهلاك الغذاء ، الحالة التغذوية وانتشار فقر الدم التغذوي وسط عينة من 185 من النساء الحوامل متوسط أعمارهن 31.2 (± 7.3) سنة في محلية شرق النيل بولاية الخرطوم. تتمثل أهداف الدراسة في معرفة انتشار فقر الدم التغذوي الذي يُعزى لنقص الحديد، نقص الفوليك، نقص فيتامين ب12 أو لنقص اثنين منهم أو جميعهم وسط النساء الحوامل، و كذلك لمعرفة الارتباط بين الحالات الاقتصادية الاجتماعية و فقر الدم التغذوي. صُممت استبانة لجمع البيانات والمعلومات عن الأعمار و القياسات الجسمية و المتناول الغذائي و الوضع الاقتصادي الاجتماعي لأسر الحوامل و الأحوال السكنية و التاريخ الطبي و تاريخ الولادة و فحص البراز و البول و الملاريا و الدم (مستوى الهيموجلوبين ومصل الحديد والصور النوعية للدم) للنساء الحوامل. حللت البيانات باستخدام نظام الحزمة الإحصائية للعلوم الاجتماعية (النسخة 21). خلصت نتائج الدراسة إلى أن 32.4% من النساء الحوامل يعانين من فقر الدم التغذوي، و(15.1%) منهن يعانين من فقر الدم الذي يُعزى لنقص عنصر الحديد، (9.2%) يعانين من فقر الدم التضخمي (نقص عنصر الفوليك أو نقص فايتمين ب12)، و(8.1%) من الحوامل يعانين من مزيج فقر الدم (فقر الدم الذي يُعزى لنقص عنصر الحديد وفقر الدم التضخمي). أقل من خمس النساء الحوامل يعانين من فقر الدم التغذوي بدرجة حادة (الهموجلوبين أقل من 7.0 جرام/ ديسيلتر)، بينما 2.7% يعانين من فقر الدم التغذوي بدرجة متوسطة. (19.5%) من الحوامل يعانين من نقص المغذيات الدقيقة (نقص الحديد)..من وجهة النظر الاقتصادية الاجتماعية أبرزت الدراسة أن نسبة عالية من الحوامل اللاتي يعانين من فقر الدم التغذوي (20%) أنهن تلقين تعليماً ثانوياً، و(9.3%) تلقى أزواجهن تعليماً متوسطاً وثانوياً بذات النسبة المتساوية. ما يقارب النصف (41.9%) من الحوامل يزاول أزواجهن وظائف حكومية وأكثرمن ثلاثة أرباع الحوامل غير عاملات (ربات منازل). توجد فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية عالية (P0.000) بين انتشار فقر الدم التغذوي والإجهاضات السابقة. أنماط الاستهلاك لكل من مجموعة الألبان ومنتجاتها و مجموعة الزيوت ،الدهون والسكريات ذات دلالة إحصائية عالية مع انتشار فقر الدم التغذوي (P0.000)، كما أن كفاية المغذيات الدقيقة أيضاً ذات دلالة إحصائية عالية مع انتشار فقر الدم التغذوي (P0.000)، أكثر من نصف النساء الحوامل (51.8%) تمت لديهن تلبية الحد الأدنى من التنوع الغذائي للأطعمة المستهلكة مما لا يقل عن خمس من المجموعات الغذائية العشر. منسب كتلة الجسم للحوامل يعكس الحالة التغذوية؛ (32.4%) منهن يعانين من زيادة الوزن مع دلالة إحصائية (P0.048) بين انتشار فقر الدم التغذوي و الحالة التغذوية. أثبتت الدراسة أن فقر الدم التغذوي ونقص المغذيات الدقيقة يعد مشكلة صحية بالغة الخطورة وسط النساء الحوامل يستوجب بذل جهد ووضع إستراتيجيات وحلول عاجلة للحد منه، أو على أقل تقدير إعطاءهما نفس الأهمية التي تعطى لنقص المغذيات الأخرى.
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    Assessment of Nutritional Status among Patients with Celiac Disease attended IbnSina Specialized Hospital
    (University of Khartoum, 2018-07) Taysir Mohamed Omer Alaib
    Abstract Background: Celiac disease is an autoimmune digestive disorder of the small intestine which causes difficulty with absorbing nutrients from the diet. Objectives:To study the nutrition status of patients with celiac disease in the Celiac Clinic at IbnSina hospital. Methods:This is a descriptive cross-sectional hospital-based study recruited 73 patients diagnosed with celiac clinic and aged 6 years or above and attended Celiac clinic at IbnSina Specialized Hospital. Data was collected by direct interview with patients and caregivers, and questionnaire was used. Variables of the study included base-line data of patients, anthropometric measurements (weight, height), nutritional consumption , nutritional status and health information. Data was analyzed by using statistical package for social science (SPSSS, vers.21). Results: Out of 73 patients with celiac disease, males were 23(32%) and females were 50(68%). The commonest educational level was secondary schooling which reported in 23(32%). Health problems among participants includedBreastfeeding in babyhood was reported by (92%), consanguinity which was reported in (71%), family history of celiac disease in 28(38%), digestive disorder(51%) intake found avoided by (96%), fruits always taken by (81%), milk and milk products and meat always taken by (85% for each) and egg by (86%). Patients in all age groups found to have insufficient calories; maximum adequacy of calories was 74% and found taken by Females above 19, and the minimum calories was 44% and taken by Males above 19. Nutritional status revealed that, majority of patients in both genders have normal weight. Digestive disease found significantly associated with ignorance of fruits intake (P = 0.002). Conclusion: Patients with celiac disease found to have insufficient adequacy of calories and cost effectiveness is an obstacles to satisfy all the nutritional alternatives.  مستخلـص البحــث خلفية:إن حساسية القمح ومشتقاته (الداء البطني) هو اضطراب في المناعة الذاتية الذي يحدث فقي الأمعاء الدقيقة ويسبب صعوبة في بعض امتصاص العناصر الغذائية من الطعام. الأهداف: تهدف الدراسة إلى تقييم الحالة التغذوية للمرضى الذين يعانون من حساسية القمح ومشتقاته (الشعير – الشوفان – حبوب الجاودار) في عيادة حساسية القمح بمستشفى ابن سينا التخصصي. المنهجية: هذه دراسة وصفية مقطعية سريرية شملت 73 مريض بحساسية القمح في عمر 6 سنوات فما فوق وكانوا قد حضروا إلى عيادة ساسية القمح بمستشفى ابن سينا التخصصي. تم جمع عن طريق الحوار المباشر مع المرضى أو أولياء أمورهم كما تم جمع البيانات باستخدام استبيان معد مسبقاً ثم تم تحليله باستخدام برنامج الحزمة الإحصائية للدراسات الاجتماعية (النسخة 21). متغيرات الدراسة شملت المعلومات الأساسية للمرضى، القياسات الجسمانية (الطول والوزن)، الاستهلاك الغذائي والنمط الغذائي بصورة عاممة وخلال الـ 24 ساعة الأخيرة والوضع الغذائية والمعلومات الصحية. النتائج: من بين 73 مريض بحساسية القمح كان عدد الذكور 23(32%) فيما مثلت الإناث 50(68%). وجد أن أكثر المرضي تلقوا تعليماً ثانوياً حيث مثلوا 23(32%). وجد أن (92%) من المشاركين تلقوا رضاعة طبيعية. من بين المشاكل الصحية وسط مرضى وجد أن زواج الأقارب وسط (71%)، تاريخ مرض حساسية القمح وسط 28(38%) واذطرابات الهضم لدى (51%) واضطرابات في النوم لدى (53%) . فيما يخص نتائج الغذاء فقد أظهرت الدراسة أن (96%) يتجنبوا تناول القمح ومشتقاته، و(81%) يتناولوا الفواكه بصورة دائمة، ويتناول (85%) اللبن ومنتجاته بصورة دائمة ويتناول (85%) منهم اللحوم. وجد أن مستوى الطاقة غير كاف لدى مختلف أعمار المرضى حيث كان أعلى مستوى للطاقة 74% لدى الإناث فوق عمر 19 سنة وأقل مستوى للطاقة كان 44% لدى الذكور فوق عمر 19 سنة. الحالة التغذوية أظهرت أن أغلب المرضى في كلا الجنسين أوزان طبيعية. كما وجد أن مشاكل الهضم مرتبطة بعدم تناول الفواكه (القيمة الاحتمالية = 0.002). الخلاصة: خلصت الدراسة إلى أن مرضى حساسية القمح لديهم طاقة غير كافية كما تمثل التكلفة المالية إحدى معوقات ضد تناول بدائل غذائية كافية.
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    Nutritional Status of People living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Enrolled in Antiretroviral Therapy in Khartoum State
    ( 2018-11) Almgboul, Afnan Abdalhalim Mohamed
    The main objective of this study is to assess the nutritional status of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) patients in antiretroviral therapy (ART). A cross-sectional hospital-based study was carried out at all (ART) centers in Khartoum State. The study population involved all HIV adult patients who are currently on Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy for period not less than six months. 301 participants were included in the study through a systematic randomization selection, and participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Collecting data included demographic and socio- economic characteristics of participants, their nutritional anthropometry based on body mass index BMI, and dietary intake assessment, and reading hemoglobin test (Hb).Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20 was used for data entry and analysis. The results showed that 56.5% of the participants were males, and 61.5% were in the age group 30 to less than 40 years, 44% were married, about two thirds (65.2%) had low level of education, and 46.8% were of low socio- economic status. Concerning nutritional status the data indicated that mean BMI was 23.55 ± 4.13for females compared to 22.94 ± 3.68 for the males; and 23.21 ± 3.9 for all. 50.8% of the participants had normal BMI, and 33.3% were overweight. Significant relationship between nutritional status BMI and participants’ gender was found (P- value 0.031).Males are more likely to be under weight than females who showed tendency for being overweight and obese. Hemoglobin levels also were found to be significantly associated with the gender of the participants (P- value 0.001) and nutrition status (0.000), as more than two thirds 67.1% of males were anemic compared to less than half 49.2% of the females, and participants with low BMI are more likely to be anemic compared to those with normal or high. Regarding the frequency consumption of different food items the results showed that low daily frequency consumption of meat17.3%, viii and fruits and vegetables17.6%, with moderate consumption of milk and milk products, while high consumption of legumes was reported. The data also showed that the majority of study participants had inadequacy intake of carbohydrates 93% and fats 51.8% with mean intake of 386.2g ± 111.536 g and 22.7g ± 7.637 g, respectively. While most of the participants had high adequacy intake of protein 65.4% and iron 64.5% with mean intake of 116.2g ± 33.655 g and 20.8mg ± 6.355 mg, respectively. Although the study showed that the majority of participants were anemic, but the positive effect of treatment was reflected on the BMI. Thus combination of antiretroviral treatment and provision of good nutritional services is expected to improve the quality of life of (PLHIV) in Sudan through decreasing morbidity and mortality. In addition, nutritional status assessment and nutritional therapy should be considered as an integral part of the (HIV) care and treatment program in the country.
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    Feeding Pattern and Dietary Practices of Patients with Gall Bladder Stones in Omdurman Military Hospital
    (University of Khartoum, ) Ali, Alaa Mohammed Shereef ; Hashim Suliman Ibrahim ; Family Sciences
    The objectives of this study were to collect information regarding feeding pattern and dietary practices of patients with gallbladder stones and to describe their socioeconomic characteristics and their nutritional status. A cross-sectional hospital based study was used. The study was conducted in Omdurman Military Hospital - Khartoum State. The sample size was consisted of 100 patients with gallbladder stones selected according to specific statistical formula. The primary data had been collected using a questionnaire covering socioeconomic characteristics, medical history, dietary pattern and anthropometric measurements. Results of the study showed that the majority of patients were females (82 %), patient's ages ranged from 20 years to 70 years with higher incidence among those who are above 40 years (64%). The data also showed that most of the patients were of moderate socioeconomic status. Concerning the nutritional status, the study found that 60% of gall bladder stones patients were either overweight or obese, 22% had normal weight, and 13% were underweight. Nearly half of the patients (48%) had a family history of gallbladder stones. The results also showed that most of the patients (86.7%) had no knowledge about the causes of the disease; in addition a high percentage (89%) of gallbladder stones patients does not practice any type of exercise at all. Regarding food habits and dietary pattern ,number and times of meals taken showed poor meal distribution, frequency consumption of different food items showed that the great majority of the patients (86%) consume wheat bread on daily basis, consumption of rice and macaroni several times a week was reported by (44.9%).Daily meat consumption was 68%, 72% of the patients consume milk on daily basis, vegetables daily consumption was reported by 63%.The data also showed that no specific fruits was highly uses on daily basis. Statistics were performed for the effects of the refined carbohydrate consumption on the nutritional status of the patients, the results showed a significant effect (p-value=0.047). Patients with a high consumption of refined carbohydrate had a high level of body mass index, also a IV significant relationship (P-value=0.000) was found between nutritional status and fat consumption. Patients with lower fat intake tend to have normal body mass index. No significant statistical association between body mass index and protein and cereals consumption. In conclusion, the study confirms that patient's knowledge about the dietary management and causes of the disease is limited. Therefore, gallbladder patients should counsel to adopt healthy eating habits and encourage them to improve their diets in order to prevent the disease complications and to increase their quality of life. Further studies should be done to investigate the relationship between diet and prevalence of gallbladder stones.
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    Birth Weight and Length of New-Born Infants Delivered at Omdurman Maternity Hospital
    (University of Khartoum, ) Elhadi, Howida Bashir ; Faiza Yousif Zumrawi