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Itemالآثار المترتبة على عمليات التهجير و إعادة التوطين للمتأثرين بمشروع سكر النيل الأبيض(جامعة الخرطوم, 2020)ملخص الدراسة تواجه مشاريع التنمية الكبرى في السودان العديد من المشكلات الإقتصادية و الإجتماعية و التخطيطية على رأسها تهجير و إعادة توطين أهالي المنطقة المخصصة لقيام المشروع، و تتناول الدراسة حالة قيام مشروع سكر النيل الأبيض نموذجاً لذلك،و الذي ترتب على قيامه ظهور إعتراضات من قبل المواطنين المتأثرين في المنطقة ؛ لذا تبحث الدراسة عن الإجابة لعدة تساؤلات هي: ما هي سبب ظهورها؟ و هل أن لأهداف هذه المشاريع و المنتوج المرجو منها سبب كافٍ ومقنع لإتخاذ هذه القرارات؟ و تهدف الدراسة إلى وضع تقويم للآثار السالبة المترتبة علي إنشاء مشروع مصنع سكر النيل الأبيض علي السكان الأصليين في قرى المنطقة، و دراسة و تقويم فكرة تجميع القري وتخطيطها وفق التوزيع الهرمي للتجمعات السكانية، و لقد تطلب عمل هذه الدراسة جمع العديد من المعلومات الأولية، و المقابلات مع الجهات المختصة، و الزيارات الميدانية ، و دراسة و مقارنة الوضع قبل و بعد قيام المشروع، كذلك تم عمل مقارنة للمشروع التنموي مع مشاريع تنموية أخرى، كما احتاجت الدراسة لعمل إستبيان للمواطنين في المنطقة المعنية بالدراسة لمعرفة الأثر النفسي لعمليتي التهجير و إعادة التوطين، وتنزيل بيانات هذا الإستبان إحصائيا و من ثم تحليل بياناته للوصول للنتائج، كما إعتمدت الدراسة على المصادر الثانوية المتمثلة في الوثائق، و الكتب و الصحف، و توصلت الدراسة إلى أن 84,3 % من السكان في نموذج الدراسة ليسو راضين بالوضع الحالي بعد التهجير و إعادة التوطين ، بالرغم من أن مشروع سكر النيل الأبيض قد ساهم فعلاً في تنمية المنطقة بنسبة 88,6% وأدى إلى الإستقرار؛ لكن تظل فكرة التهجير مرفوضة داخلياً في نفوس السكان مهما كانت الفوائد؛ لذا أوصت الدراسة بتوصيات عامة و هي ضرورة دراسة حيثيات أي مشروع تنموي قبل إتخاذ قرار تهجير مجتمع سكاني آمن،و موازنة المنافع مع الخسائر. و توصيات خاصة بالمشروع أهمها حل جميع المشكلات العالقة و المتعلقة بالتعويضات، و دمج التجمع الرابع إلى التجمع الخامس، و ربط هذه التجمعات بطرق مسفلتة، و إكمال الخدمات الرئيسية من تعليم، صحة، نواحي اقتصادية و تجارية...الخ. Abstract Major development projects in the Sudan face many economic, social and planning problems on the head displacing and resetting the people of the area, to initiate and address the case of White Nile Sugar project as a model, which entailed the emergence of objection by affected citizens in area, so the study is looking for answers to a few questions: which is why it is appearing? Are the objectives of these projects and the desired product a sufficient and convincing reason for making these decisions? The study aims to evaluate the negative effects of the establishment of the White Nile Sugar project on indigenous people in the villages of the region and study and evaluate the idea of grouping and planning villages according to the hierarchical distribution of the population groupings, and the study was conducted to collect preliminary information required the collection of much preliminary information, interviews from the competent authorities, field visits, study and comparison of the situation, before and after the project was done, and comparison was made to another development projects. The study also needed to work out a questionnaire for citizen in the study area to determine the psychological impact of displacement and resettlement; the data for this questionnaire are statistically downloaded and the data is then analyzed to achieve the results, and the study obtained the secondary sources of documents, books, and newspapers, and the study found that %84,3 of the population in the study model is not satisfied with current situation after displacement and resettlement, although the White Nile Sugar project has already contributed to the development of the region by % 88,6 and has led to stability؛ but the idea of displacement remains internally rejected whatever the benefits. Therefore, the study recommended general recommendations, namely, the need to study the merits of a development project before a deciding to displace a safe population, balancing benefits with losses, and special recommendations For Project the most important of them is to solve all outstanding issues related to reparation, and merger the fourth compound to the fifth grouping, Linking these communities to a porous way, and completing the main services of education, health, economic and commercial aspects …etc.
ItemAppraisal of Official Planning, Housing Policies and Practice in Gezira Scheme Villages with Special Focus on the Social & Cultural Activity Places(University of Khartoum, 2015-06-24)This study is concerned with the appraisal of the official planning and housing policies with regards to places of social and cultural activities in the traditional agrarian societies with special reference to the Gezira Irrigated Scheme. The main aim of this study is to examine the application of these policies and their effect on the traditional societies. The official policies currently in use in the Sudan are rigid in nature. They were set-up to control planning and urban development. The application of these policies on traditional societies without taking in consideration their nature, actual and specific social and cultural needs resulted in various practical problems and defeating the purposes they were intended to serve. The situation of the social and cultural activity places in the traditional agrarian societies is a witness for the lack of response of their policies and calls for a revision of these policies based on a more flexible approach.
ItemThe Arab Housein the Mediterranean Context.(uofk, 2015-06-23)Many researches have been done about Arab residential design in different parts of the Arab world including tents, Yemeni and courtyard houses. Yet Arab Mediterranean architecture has had the least Share of attention, since researchers have studied more about residential architecture in the tropical zone. They have also neglected houses giving more attention to communal buildings such as mosques and to monuments generally. The term Mediterranean Architecture, refers to a type of design which has developed from definite physical and social factors. Even though this type of design has been adopted in several parts of the world, it has originated on the Mediterranean coasts, reflecting the primary human needs, culture and environment of the people living in the West North African coast-or the Mathis, Spain, the Greek islands, southern Italy and Levantine. Perhaps the most outstanding characteristic of these houses is their rationality and clarity. It is .also characterized by its features which will be identified later in this research. The aim of this research is the identification and analysis of the elements of Maharini Mediterranean residential architecture and their relevance to the different theories that have attempted to explain house form, and the social and environmental conditions in which these elements came to be The conclusion of this study, shows the dominance of socio-cultural factors on Maharini house form, and lists recommendations for developing the subject of the research within the traditional frame. Hopefully, the conclusions that have come out of this research will help in making the maximum benefit of the elements studied so that they can be utilized in the development of a contemporary epidemical architecture especially in this part of the Arab world.
ItemAppraisal of Residential Neighborhood’s Planning of Omdurman Town Case Study ELMulazmin Residential Area(University of Khartoum, 2015-04-27)The basic principles of planning is the creation of integrated human communities and not just a conglomeration of houses. People live in communities where they may satisfy the great variety of their needs and desires. The community should therefore always be unit of planning and include residence, places of work , recreational facilities and all other services necessary for healthy and pleasant living. Planning is to create happy and stable human communities , which will respect human’s cultural and social requirements, within their economic status. The research aims at identifying means for improving the residential environment of neighbourhoods in Omdurman Town.The homogenity among the residents of old Omdurman is clearly marked in the arrangement of their living quarters .Narrow winding lanes and compacted building structure are the charachteristics of these old neighbourhoods . Such organic patterns satisfies the social cultural and environmental needs of its inhabitants . Afurther study is carried in ElMulazmin residential area , which enjoys a valuable location along the Nile .The planning pattern adopted in the residential nieghbourhood is a rigid form of drawing board subdivisions. A study in this nieghbourhood is carried to asses the satisfaction of the residents by this planning pattern and whether they are able to fulfill their social cultural and environmental requirements . The research is carried in two parts .The first part covers the concepts of community and neighbourhood planning ,beside a general review of neighbourhood planning in Omdurman Town.The second part is a study carried out in Elmulazmin residential area.The study is mainly concerned about the existing planning pattern and whether it satisfys the residents social and cultural needs. Recommendations are issued at two levels .At the first level there is a list of recommendations for improvement of residential neighbourhoods’ environment in Omdurman Town.At the second level recommendations are for the improvement of Elmulazmin residetial area . We must build into our communities the aethetics and cultural values of our times, just as our fore-fathers in Ancient Babylon and Egypt and through the middle ages did in their own settlements. In planning human settlements the dimension of time should be considered and catered for. Roads , water supply , sewarage systems, educational institution, libraries , shopping centers and amenities very seldom cover the needs of people five or ten years after their creation. I hope that the recommendations issued will be of a help to planners when arranging new settlements and will be a contribution towards happy and stable communities .