Department of Poultry Production
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ItemThe feeding value of sesame seed meal in Boliler Ditets(University of Khartoum, 2004)ABSTRACT The utilization of sesame seeds meal as the sole vegetable protein supplement was studied to assess its feeding value for broiler chicks' growth.A 6-weeks feeding trial was conducted with day- old broiler chicks (Ross), reared in experimental pens in an open deep litter house. Four experimental diets were used in the trial, which included a basal diet (diet 1) containing sesame meal as the sole vegetable protein supplement. This basal diet was supplemented with lysine, methionine or lysine plus methionine to produce diets 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The feeding trail was arranged in the form of a completely randomized block design, with three blocks and four experimental units (pens) per blocks, and each dietary treatment was replicated three times. Records were kept for weekly feed consumption, liveweight, feed conversion ratio and for final plucked and dressed carcass weights. The collected data was subjected to analyses of variance to find out any statistical differences among the dietary treatments. The results revealed clearly an inferior productive performance of the experimental chicks fed on the sesame-basal diet (diet 1), the methionine supplemented diet (diet 3) and the lysine+methionine viii supplemented diet (diet 4). The performance was improved by supplementing the control sesame based diet with lysine alone. This indicates that sesame meal, as a sole vegetable protein supplement, is in adequate for broiler growth because of its short supply of lysine. The results also showed that the mean feed consumption was not significantly affected by the experimental diets, but it was markedly higher for the group of birds fed the lysine supplemented diet (diet 2). Final liveweight, plucked and dressed weights were also significantly increased by feeding (diet 2), and were reduced in the group of birds fed the methionine supplemented diet (diet 3). This latter group of birds had the highest feed conversion ratio, which was statistically different from the other dietary treatments. According to the results of the present study, it can be anticipated that, sesame seeds meal can be utilized effectively in broiler diets, to support satisfactory chicks' performance, provided the diet is supplemented with synthetic lysine to correct its deficiency in the sesame meal. Similarly lysine rich supplements can be combined with sesame meal supplement to correct for this amino acid deficiency and improve growth rate and feed utilization efficiency.
ItemEffect of Dietary Garlic (Allium sativum) Oil as Natural Growth Promoter on Performance of Broilers(University of Khartoum, 2019-09)Abstract: The study aimed assessment of broiler chick’s performance fed on graded levels of dietary garlic oil as a natural growth promoter compared with antibiotic neomycin. The experiment was conducted during summer 2014 at the poultry unit of the faculty of animal production, University of Khartoum. Fresh garlic oil was purchased from Omdurman city in Khartoum state in addition to 120 day old broiler chick ( Ross ) from local commercial hatchery center ( ommat ). On arrival, the chicks were evenly weighed in groups and randomly distributed into the prepared 12 expermintal pens within a conventional poultry house so that each pen contained 10 chicks of 33gm average chick weight. A standard ( grain, sorghum, groundnut cake ) starter broiler diet containing antibiotic neomycin (20mg/kg) versus three other starter diets containing either 0.20, 0.40 or 0.60% garlic oil were formulated. Using a complete randomize design, the four diatry treatments randomaly assigned to the experimental chick pens so that each diet was replicated three times. Average body weight gain and feed intake for each chick were measured weekly and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was computed. Post-slaughtering, the carcass weight, dressing out percentage (DO %) and weights of some internal organs including heart, liver and gizzard were taken. The data were subjected to ANOVA using statistic X version 8 (2003) and the least significant difference method was used for test of means. Although the performance of the broiler chicks was not significant (P≥0.05) different among the dietary treatments, the diet containing the highiest level of garlic oil ( 0.60% ) compared to other 3 dietary treatments ( the standard, 0.20 or 0.40% garlic oil ) tended to enhance the total amount of feed consumed (2793 vs. 2505, 2178 and 2308 g/b); body weight gain ( 1291 vs. 1170, 1175 and 1184 g/b); and carcass weight (960.63 vs. 854.40, 822.30 and 872.96 g/b) but at the expense of improving mortality rate (8.47% vs. 4.23, 0.85 and 2.54%) or FCR (1.70 vs. 1.70, 1.50 and 1.60 g. feed/ g. body wt. gain). It is concluded that for enhancing garlic oil utilization as natural growth promoter in broiler diets, further studies are recommended for determining the optimum inclusion level and economic feasibility of garlic oil in poultry diets. المستخلص: هدفت الدراسة لتقييم اداء الفراخ اللاحم المغذي علي علائق ذات تراكيز متدرجة لزيت الثوم كمحفز طبيعي للنمو مقارنة بالمضاد الحيوي ( النيومايسين). اجريت التجربة في صيف 2014م بوحدة دواجن كلية الانتاج الحيواني جامعة الخرطوم. تم شراء زيت الثوم الطازج من سوق مدينة امدرمان بولاية الخرطوم بالاضافة الي 150 كتاكيت/لاحم عمر يوم من مركز تفقيس تجاري محلي (امات). عند الوصول؛ وزنت الكتاكيت في مجموعات متساوية و وزعت عشوائيا في 12 غرفة مجهزة داخل حظيرة تقليدية بحيث احتوي كل قفص علي 10 كتاكيت بمتوسط وزن 33 جم للطائر. كونت عليقة قياسية ( ذرة – امباز فول ) بادئه لفراخ اللحم محتوية علي مضاد حيوي ( نيومايسين – 20 مجم/ كجم ) مقابل 3 علائق بادئه محتوية اما علي 0.20؛0.40 او 0.60% زيت ثوم. باستخدام التصميم العشوائي الكامل؛ وزعت المعاملات الغذائية الاربع عشوائيا علي اقفاص كتاكيت التجربة بحيث كررت كل معامله 3 مرات. تم قياس متوسط وزن الجسم المكتسب؛ كمية العلف المستهلك اسبوعيا لكل طائر مع حساب معدل التحول الغذائي. بعد الذبح؛ اخذ وزن الذبيح ونسبة التصافي؛ واوزان بعض اعضاء الجسم الداخلية شملت القلب و الكبد و القانصة. البيانات اخضعت لتحليل التباين باستخدام حزمة الاحصاء اكس 8 (2003) كما استخدمت طريقة الاقل فرقا معنويا لاختبار المتوسطات. علي الرغم من ان الاداء الكلي للكتاكيت لم يختلف معنويا (p>0.05) ؛ الا ان العليقة المحتوية علي اعلي نسبة من زيت الثوم (%0.60) مقارنة بالمعاملات الثلاث الاخري ( القياسية؛ 0.2% و 0.4% زيت ثوم) مالت الي تحسين معدل العلف المستهلك ( 2793 مقابل 2505؛ 2178 و 2308 جم/طائر ) ؛ وزن الجسم المكتسب ( 1291 مقابل 1170 ؛ 1175 و 1184 جم/طائر ) و وزن الذبيح ( 960.63 مقابل 854.40 ؛ 822.30 و 872.96 جم/طائر ) و لكن علي حساب التحسن في نسبة النفوق ( 8.47 مقابل 4.23 ؛ 0.85 و 2.54% ) ونسبة التحول الغذائي ( 1.70 مقابل 1.70 و1.50 و 1.60 جم علف / جم وزن جسم مكتسب ). ختاما من اجل تحسين استغلال زيت الثوم كمحفز طبيعي للنمو في علائق الدجاج اللاحم؛ مطلوب مزيد من التجارب لتحديد مستوي الادخال الامثل والجدوي الاقتصادية لزيت الثوم في العلائق.
ItemEffect of Plant Concentrate Formulated from Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) and Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Seed Meals on Broiler Chick Performance and Blood Profile(University of Khartoum, )This study was conducted to determine the effect of plant concentrate (PC) formulated from safflower (51%), cowpea seed (33%), lysine (6%), methionine (2.5%), limestone (7%), premix (0.3%), and salt (0.2%) on the performance and blood profile of broiler chicks, feed cost and profitability compared with imported concentrate. total of 120 unsexed one-day old (Ross strain) were used. The birds were distributed randomly into four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design (CRD); each group was divided into three replicates with 10 birds/each. The experimental diets were 0% PC (A), 5% plant concentrate (B), 6% PC (C), and 7% PC (D). Feed and water were provided ad libitum during the trial period (6weeks). Parameters measured included feed consumption, body weight gain, FCR dressing percentage, internal organs weights (liver, gizzard, abdominal fat and heart) and some blood profile parameters, total white blood cells count (TWBCs), total red blood cells (TRBCs), packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin Concentration (Hb) The results revealed that birds fed diets containing (6%) PC consumed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) less fed than 5% PC flowed by 7% PC and control respectively. The body weight gain of birds that received treated diets was decreased with increasing the level of PC (5%, 6 %, and 7%). Treated diets showed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower FCR than control. Birds on treated diet (5%, 6%, and 7% PC) had lower blood profile values (WBCs, RBCs, PCV and Hb) than control group. The weights of liver, abdominal fat and neck decreased with increase in level of PC diet contained 6% PC had low feed cost and high profitability. It was concluded that 6% PC improved the general performance of broiler chickens compared with other levels. PC diets decreased TWBCs, RBCs, PCV and Hb. It is recommend to supplement broiler ration with 6% PC which resulted in lower feed cost and high profitability than other levels. More research is needed to characterize the alternative feedstuffs (plant protein) with regard to their digestibility and content of anti-nutritional factors.
ItemContents and Quality of Fatty Acids of Eggs Produced in Local Housing System Compared to Standards of Columbus Eggs(University of Khartoum, )This study was designed to investigate the effect of domestic commercial layer housing system on egg yolks fatty acids contents and quality compared to standards Columbus eggs (designed or enriched omega-3 eggs). Based on records of Inma’s chicks producer company, three layer farms were selected for sampling experimental eggs. The selected farms shared the same layer breed (Lohman), age (32wk) and diet, but they differed in layer housing systems (open sided, closed and semi closed) .Through 3 successive months (March – May 2015), 270 eggs were randomly collected from hens housed under each of the three housing systems. In each month, the collected eggs were divided into three replicates of 30 eggs each, then transferred to the laboratory for fatty acids analysis following the procedure of Folch et al.(1957). The obtained data were subjected to ANOVA using SPSS (2010). The results indicated that eggs laid under the closed housing system vs. the other 2 systems recorded significantly (p≤ 0.05) lower amount of palmitic acid (C16:0) but higher in caprylic (C8:0), pentadecanoic (C15:0) and heptadecanoic (C17:0) acids. The contents of C16:0 in eggs of hens under the three housing systems were the highest (26.29-61.07%) in comparison to the other saturated fatty acids which ranged between 0.001 - 0.76 %. Likewise, eggs produced under the closed layer housing system contained significantly (p≤ 0.05) higher percentages of all determined monounsaturated fatty acids (palmitoleic,C16:1; heptadecenoic,C17:1; elaidic,C18:1; eicosenoic,C20:1; and erucic,C22:1) except pentadecenoic,C15:1 which showed significantly (p≤ 0.05) lower percentage (27.27%) than those produced under the open sided (33.26%) or the semi-closed (35.23%) layer housing systems. The polyunsaturated fatty acids were significantly (p≤ 0.05) higher in the closed layer housing system compared to the other two systems with the exception of arachidonic,C20:4 which was the least in eggs of all examined housing systems. Comparing the fatty acids content of the experimental eggs with the standards of Columbus eggs, the results indicated that the contents of C16:0 in the experimental eggs were significantly (p≤ 0.05) higher than the standards of Columbus eggs (26.89-61.07 vs. 19%) . Conversely, the contents of stearic (C18:0), C16:1 and C18:1 were significantly (p≤ 0.05) lower in the experimental eggs compared to standards of Columbus eggs. The standards of Columbus eggs also revealed significantly (p≤ 0.05) higher levels of polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids than the experimental eggs. The variation between the standards of Columbus eggs and the eggs under the three layer housing systems was also indicated by the ratios of total polyunsaturated fatty acids to total saturated fatty acids ; total omega-6 to total omega-3 fatty acids; and total long chains of omega -6 to omega-3 fatty acids. The ratios of standards of Columbus eggs for the former two categories were almost 1:1, whereas the ratio for the latter category of the long chain fatty acids was 0.32:1. The corresponding ratios in the experimental eggs ranges were 0.01-0.3:1, 3.07-204:1, and 2.66-274:1, respectively, which apparently differed from the standard ratios of Columbus eggs. Based on the presented results, the local layer hens housing system had a significant (p≤0.05) effect on eggs' fatty acid contents and quality. Eggs produced under the closed housing system showed significantly (p≤ 0.05) lower omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids contents than the standards of Columbus eggs but these contents were higher than the contents of eggs produced under both the open sided and the semi-closed housing systems. It is recommended to conduct more studies to explore the reasons behind the apparent disparity in the features and quality of fatty acids of eggs produced by local housing system.
ItemThe Feeding Value of Cottonseed Meal In Broiler Diets(University of Khartoum, )The utilization of cottonseed meal as a sole source of vegetable protein supplement or in combination with decorticated groundnut or sesame meal, or supplemented with lysine and/or methionine was studied to assess its feeding value in broiler diets. Two 6-weeks feeding trials were conducted utilizing day-old broiler chicks housed in an open deep litter experimental house. The experiments were arranged in completely randomized block design, each consisting of 12 pens (experimental units) arranged in three rows (blocks) of four pens and each pen accommodated 8 chicks. A basal diet was formulated containing 30% cottonseed meal as the sole source of vegetable protein supplement. Half the amount of the cottonseed meal in the basal diet was substituted by decorticated groundnut meal or the same amount of sesame seed meal in trial I. L-lysine (0.25%) and/or DL-methionine (0.15%) were supplemented to the cottonseed meal in the second trial. Weekly records were kept for feed consumption, live weight gain, feed conversion ratio and daily mortality, and the dressing percentage of the experimental birds was determined at the end of each trial. The results indicated that cottonseed meal, when used as a sole vegetable protein supplement in the diet did not support optimum broiler growth or feed conversion efficiency, while the combination of 15% cottonseed meal +15% decorticated groundnut or 15% cotton seed meal + 15% sesame meal significantly improved broiler performance. These combinations resulted in significant increases in feed consumption, body weight gain and dressing percentage while the feed conversion ratio was not significantly affected. On the other hand, the supplementation of cottonseed meal protein with lysine or methionine or lysine + methionine did not affect the performance of the experimental birds. The results indicated an effective mutual supplementary effect between cottonseed meal protein and that of decorticated groundnut, or sesame meals. This supplementary effect would improve the protein quality of cottonseed meal and its utilization efficiency in broiler diets