Vol.12, No. 2, 2004

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    Micropropagation of Jasmine (Jasminum azoricum L.) Using Tissue Culture Techniques
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 2004) Layous., L.N
    A rapid and improved procedure of micropropagation of jasmine (Jasminum azoricum L.) was studied. Different types of tissue explants were cultured on MS salt mix containing different concentrations of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), benzyl- aminopurine (BAP) and kinetin. The explants culture was conducted at different times in order to assess time effects on bud proliferation, elongation and root formation and to obtain proper clones after acclimatization. The results showed that kinetin (0.5 mg/L) on the MS medium gave the best result with regard to bud proliferation and multiplication. However, addition of NAA of different concentrations was inhibitory. The response of base and intermediate cuttings was better than terminal ones. The best time for bud proliferation in primary explants culture on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L kinetin was February and for bud multiplication February and March. Using 1.5 mg/L IBA in in vitro rooting medium, gave 97 % rooted plantlets, while ex vitro rooting of plantlets on agricultural media after soaking their bases in a solution containing 20 mg/L IBA increased rooting percentage up to 99%. In addition, the ex vitro rooting resulted in successful hardening of 94% of the plantlets and reduced time, costs and efforts required for rooting and hardening.
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    A Note on the Effects of Phosphorus and Nitrogen Fertilizers on Chemical Composition of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) Grains
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 2004) Hago, T.E.M ; Ali, S.A.M. ; Eltilib, A. M.A.
    A field experiment was conducted for two consecutive seasons (1999/2000 and 2000/2001) at the University of Zalengi, Western Darfur State, Sudan, to study the effects of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers on the chemical composition of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) grains. A local pearl millet cultivar (Darmassa) was used as a test crop. The treatments consisted of four nitrogen (0, 30, 60, 80 kg N/ha) and four phosphorus (0, 15, 30, 60 kg P2O5/ha) rates, using urea (46% N) and triple superphosphate (48% P2O5) as sources of nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. The experimental design was split plot with five replicates, allocating nitrogen to the main and phosphorus to the subplots. The results showed that nitrogen significantly increased grain protein content in both seasons, while phosphorus caused a consistent increase in grain protein and phosphorus contents in both seasons, but the increase was significant in the second season only. As for the other grain constituents (K, Ca, Mg,), they were not affected by any of the treatments. Moreover, there were no significant interactions between the treatments.
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    Some Aspects of Rural Indigenous Chicken Raising in the Gezira State, Sudan
    ( 2014-09-23)
    A survey was conducted in four randomly selected villages in the Gezira State in central Sudan. One hundred households were randomly chosen to answer a closed-ended questionnaire. Data on production parameters, constraints to indigenous poultry keeping and the physical and chemical compositions of crop contents of adult scavenger chicken were collected. The survey indicated that very few indigenous chicken existed in the study area, with flock size range of 6-10 birds per household. Egg production ranged between 40 and 60 eggs per bird per year. Disease outbreaks, specially New Castle, caused high mortality rate during summer. Lack of veterinary services, diseases and death of chicks were the most cited problems that constrained poultry keeping in the study area. Daily crude protein consumption was below the recommended requirements, and, therefore, protein supplementation is recommended so as to improve the dietary status of scavenger local chicken
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    Productive Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Chemical Composition of Meat of Sudanese Native Ducks
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 2004) El Beeli, M. Y. M. ; Musharaf, N. A. ; Bessei, W. ; Abdalla, H.O.
    Twenty-four unsexed 7-15 day- old local Sudanese ducklings were allotted to three treatments, each having similar number of birds of approximately similar live weight. The birds were reared in a deep litter house without any access to swimming water, and feed and water were offered ad libitum. The experimental birds were fed on one of three starter diets containing 18%, 20% or 22% crude protein (CP) and 2800 kcal metabolizable energy (ME) / kg, during the first four weeks. During the finishing period (5-12 weeks), all the birds were offered the same finishing mash diet containing 16% CP and 2990 kcal ME/kg. Weekly records were taken for feed consumption and live weight. At the end of the experimental period, four birds from each treatment were fasted, slaughtered and processed for estimating carcass quality parameters. The results revealed that the ducklings offered the starter diet, containing 18% CP and 2800 kcal ME/kg, had a better performance, in terms of body weight, feed conversion ratio and growth rate, throughout the experimental period, than those offered other starter diets. The mean live weight and mean dressed weight percentages were 2396 g and 63.4%, respectively. The percentages of carcass commercial cuts were 29.3% for the back, 26.9% for breast, 15.6% for wings, 12.9% for drumsticks, 18.1% for thighs, 7.1% for ribs and 11.8% for neck. The chemical composition of breast and thigh meat showed values for crude protein, crude fat and ash contents of 88.65% and 88.3%, 7.33% and 8.0%, 4.0% and 3.67%, respectively. It is concluded that (i) the indigenous ducks can be successfully utilized as meat birds without need to a water pond, and (ii) a satisfactory performance can be obtained on starter and finishing diets containing 18% CP and 2800 kcal ME/ kg and 16% CP and 2990 kcal ME/kg, respectively.
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    The Effect of Thermal and Chemical Treatments on the Nutritive Value of Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) Germ for Growing Broilers
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 2004) Ahmed, A.E. ; Mohammed, B.A.
    Five diets containing guar germ (250 g/kg) were fed to growing broiler chickens for six weeks. The germ was either autoclaved (diet 1), moistened with acid (diet 2), alkali (diet 3) or water (diet 4) or left untreated (diet 5). Birds receiving the treated guar germ consumed significantly (P£0.05) more feed compared to those fed the untreated germ. Autoclaving and moistening with acid and alkaline solutions significantly (P£0.05) increased gain in live-weight. Efficiency of feed conversion was improved significantly (P£0.05) in birds fed the autoclaved and the acid-treated germ. The absolute and the relative (g/kg live-weight) weights of the liver were significantly (P£0.05) increased in birds fed the raw and water-treated germ. Pancreatic relative weight was significantly (P£0.05) reduced by inclusion of the autoclaved germ. All treatments significantly (P£0.05) improved the activity of intraluminal trypsin and α-amylase. Chymotrypsin was the least enzyme affected by the treatment of the germ.