Department of Communication

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    مواكبة التشريعات الصحفية للمواثيق الدولية لحرية الصحافة (دراسة حالة السودان الفترة 2004 إلى 2009م)
    (جامعة الخرطوم, 2018) حسن محمد صالح محمد عبدالرحمن
    المستخلص يهدف هذا البحث إلى دراسة حرية الصحافة في السودان في بعديها القانوني والمهني وإرتباطها بحرية التعبير كحق من حقوق الإنسان الأساسية التي أكدت عليها المواثيق الدولية وعلي رأسها الإعلان العالمي لحقوق الإنسان الصادر في 10 ديسمبر 1948م والعهد الدولي الخاص بالحقوق المدنية والسياسية الصادر في العام 1966م، المادة ((19)) التي زاوجت بين حرية الصحافة والمسئولية الإجتماعية للصحفيين، وكذلك المواثيق الدولية لحرية الصحافة ومواثيق الشرف الصحفي التي جعلت حرية الصحافة حقا إجتماعيا وأعطت الصحفيين حق ممارسة الحرية في ظل المسئولية الإجتماعية من غير إخلال بالأمن والسلم الإجتماعي والتدخل في الشأن الخاص للأفراد على أن تكون المحكمة هي الفيصل في النزاع بين الصحافة والمجتمع أو الصحافة والحكومة.استخدم الباحث عدد من المناهج العلمية وهي: المنهج الوصفي والمنهج التحليلي والمنهج الإستطلاعي والمنهج التاريخي، كما إستخدم الباحث في دراسته أدوات الملاحظة والمقابلة والإستبانة لجمع المعلومات المتعلقة ببحثه. وقام الباحث بتوزيع مئتي إستمارة علي عينة عمدية من المبحوثين شملت أساتذة الإعلام بالجامعات السودانية ورؤساء تحرير الصحف السودانية والمحامين وطلاب الدراسات العليا بالجامعات السودانية. جمع الباحث عدد مائة وتسعين إستبانة وقام بتحليلها وإستخلاص نتائج الدراسة الميدانية. توصلت الدراسة إلى أن الحرية المنضبطة بالقانون هي الأصلح للمجتمع، وتزداد حرية الصحافة بزيادة الإستقرار السياسي والسلام الإجتماعي. ومجلس الصحافة المثالي هو المجلس المستقل عن الأجهزة التشريعية والتنفيذية والمشكل من أصحاب المهنة وممثلي المجتمع. الصحافة في السودان تعاني من السيطرة الحكومية ومن الأزمات السياسية والإقتصادية والإجتماعية والثقافية والمهنية. بالإضافة إلى أن صدور قانون وطني للصحافة جاء متأخراً أربعة عقود منذ إستقلال السودان. أضف إلى ذلك أن الصحافة تواجه الرقابة الأمنية والذاتية و وعدم تخطي الخطوط الحمراء المرسومة أمنياً وسياسياً. توصي الدراسة بالتمسك بحرية الصحافة، والإحتكام للقضاء في حالة النزاع بين المجتمع والصحافة والصحافة والحكومة. علي أن يتجنب الصحفيون التشهير وإنتهاك الخصوصية والكذب الضار. كما يجب إلغاء القوانين الإستثنائية وتعدد القوانين علي الصحافة والإهتمام بالثقافة القانونية للصحفيين وتطبيق المواثيق الأخلاقية لحرية الصحافة. Abstract The aim of this research is to study journalism freedom in Sudan in its two dimensions the legal and professional, and its relation to the freedom of expression as one of the basic human rights ensured by the international conventions, topped by the International Declaration of Human Rights issued on December, 10th 1948, and the International Convention of Civil and Political rights issued in 1966, and Article (19) which linked between journalism freedom and journalists' social responsibility, and also the international conventions and journalism honor convention which made journalism freedom as a social right and provided the journalists with right to practice freedom in the shadows of social responsibility without violating social safety and peace and intervening the privacy of individuals, and the court is the criterion for solving the dispute between. The researcher used a number of research methods which are: the descriptive, analytical, exploratory, and historical methods, as well he used the observation, questionnaire and the interview techniques as the tools used in the study to collect data related to the research. The research found that journalism disciplined by law is the most appropriate model for the society, and the journalism freedom increases as the political social peace increases. And the ideal Journalism Council is that autonomous council which is separated from legal and executive bodies, and which is formed from professional people and society representatives. Also, it was found that journalism in Sudan suffers from governmental control and political, economic, social, cultural and professional problems. In addition to that the issuance of a national journalism came lately after for decades since the independence of Sudan. As well, it confronts security and self control and not crossing the red lines, which drawn for security and political reasons. The research recommends the adherence to journalism freedom, and appealing to judiciary in cases of disputes between society and journalism or journalism and government, subject to that journalists should avoid defamation and violating individuals' privacy and detrimental disclaim. Also, exceptional and enumerate laws on Journalisms should be canceled, beside the necessity for considering raising the legal culture of journalists and applying ethical conventions of journalism freedom.
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    تحديات ومطلوبات الصحافة الإلكترونية دراسة تطبيقية على موقعي منارات إفريقية الإلكترونية وصحيفة الانتباهة الورقية 2016-2017م
    (University of Khartoum, ) ., منى أحمد خوجلي أحمد ; سارة حسين الفضل ; قسم الإعلام
    This study addressed the challenges and requirements of e-journalism, in two newspapers web sites; the African Minarets Website (islam4africa.net) and Al-intibaha newspaper website (alintibaha.net). It aims to identify the contribution of the electronic press and the challenges and requirements facing journalistic professional practices, while extrapolating the future of paper journalism in the light of the accelerated technical development of the electronic press. The research used the descriptive analytical approach. Tools used for the collection of data were: noting while participating, facilitated by the researcher work as web editor, Interviews with professionals and experts and questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of 50 editors at the African Minarets and Al-intibaha newspapers. One of the most important findings of the study: the modern professional journalistic reality has forced the journalist to be a comprehensive editor familiar with the rules and bases of editorial and writing for electronic journalism and the techniques of publishing newspapers in press sites, The websites editors’ tasks require combining the methods of editorial editing and management, taking into consideration the basics of planning, implementation, follow up and evaluation. Electronic journalism suffers from a dearth of website editors for basic reasons related to the skills required for business techniques. The study recommends the need to create a website for each newspaper that is in line with the latest modern technologies, and to qualify electronic editors capable of continuously updating newspapers and websites. Organization of technical training courses on the program of detecting intrusion on files, electronic doors and windows, and promoting the concepts of professional ethics related to the electronic press.
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    دور شبكات التواصل الإجتماعي في تشكيل الرأي العام وسط الشباب: دراسة حالة طلاب جامعة الخرطوم
    (University of Khartoum, ) شاكر يحي الحسن بابكر ; عبد الرحمن قرشي عبد الله
    The study has explored the role of social media in forming public opinion of youth. The researcher used University of Khartoum (UoK) students as a case study. The study sample included students from the following faculties: Engineering, Architecture, Science, Mathematical Sciences, Arts, Economic Studies, Law and Administrative Sciences. The study aimed to see how popular social media is among UoK students; to what extent students use social media as a platform to express their views, what are the factors that influence forming the opinion of UoK students and how social media is competing with traditional media as a source of information on social and political developments in Sudan. The researcher used sample survey methodology or the status of the selected category, questionnaires and inquiry from the research community. The study sample has included 330 students from UoK whose age range is 18-26 years old. The total number of students is 10916 and the sample wage is 3.2 %. The main findings of this study include: 90.6 % of UoK students use social media platforms. This shows that these platforms are very popular among UoK students; social media has played a positive role in the level of UoK students participation in public affairs in Sudan, social media platforms enables students to express their social, political views and UoK students depend more and more on social media to know the political and social developments in Sudan. The researcher provided some recommendations including that further investigations are needed on the role of social media in influencing political life; forming public opinion and expressing our views. The researcher has also recommended studying the impacts of smart phone applications such as WhatsApp in disseminating news and rumors and assessing the impact of such applications on our community.
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    The Coverage of International News In Ten American and Arabian Dailies
    (University of Khartoum, ) Abdelaziz, Salah Ahmed ; -
    The Coverage of International News In Ten American and Arabian Dailies
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    Copy And Related Rights
    ( 2015-06-16) Amel Ibrahim Ahmed, Abu-Zaid ; Fathelrahman Mahgoub ; Communication
    As a least developing country, Sudan has realized considerable progress in the area of telecommunications and communication technology applications. Naturally, the Sudanese mass media institutions – which are major players in the dissemination of literary and artistic works – have been affected by that progress as regards copyrights. Hence this research aims to examine, survey and study copyright problems in Sudan. This research adopts the descriptive (analytical and inferential) method depending on a qualitative approach. Due to the nature of the topic, research tools are restricted to observation, conduct of interviews with experts and content analysis of copyright national and international legislations; as well as secondary sources including reports, court cases and previous studies. All in all, these cover copyright from technical, communicative and legal perspectives during the research time span. The most important findings reached in this context are despite the fact that copyright has been introduced in Sudan about half a century ago, the concept has yet to materialize actual practice; specially for literary and artistic copy creators, publishers, radio and T.V broadcasters and website producers. Based upon those findings the research recommendations include the need for the dissemination of intellectual property culture; specially in the field of copy and related rights at governmental, social and mass media institutions levels. The revision of laws that regulate and mechanisms that implement copyrights in Sudan – such as that of a collective management mechanism for these rights – is recommended to fill gaps for the protection of rights in a digital environment.