Department of Microbiology

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    Antiviral Activity of Acacia nilotica Against Influenza AVirus
    (University of Khartoum, ) Gassab, Mona Timan Idriss ; Elamin Ibrahim Elnima ; Pharmaceutical microbiology
    Background: Human influenza is a seasonal disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality.The emergence of drug-resistant virus strains highlights the urgent need to develop novel antiviral drugs with alternative modes of action. Anti-flu Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has played a significant role in fighting the virus pandemic. In Sudan, Acacia nilotica is a commonly used ingredient in many therapeutic remedies, either alone or in conjunction with other natural substances. Evidence suggests that Acacia nilotica is associated with a variety of pharmacological activities. Object of this studywas to investigate the influence of Acacia niloticamethanolic extract on the infectivity of influenza viruses in Madin–Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, and its possible in vitro mechanism(s) of action. Methodology: The fruit husk of Acacia niloticawas collected from Sudan and extracted with70% methanol. The crude extract was screened for its cytotoxicity against MDCK cell line by crystal violet assay and Water Soluble Tetrazolium-1 (WST-1) assay. Antiviral properties of Acacia niloticaextract was determined by cytopathic inhibition assay, virus yield reduction assay (plaque assay), nuclear export inhibitor and western blotting assay. To assess the possible mechanism of action, time of addition assay was performed targeting different sites in virus life cycle. Result:Acacia nilotica has been found to have anti-influenza-virus activity, and both pre-incubation of virus prior to infection and post-exposure of infected cells with Acacia nilotica extracts significantly inhibited virus yields. Influenza-virus-induced hemagglutination of chicken red blood cells was inhibited by Acacianilotica extract, suggesting that Acacia nilotica can inhibit influenza A virus infection by interacting with the viral hemagglutinin. Furthermore, Acacianilotica extract significantly affects nuclear transport of viral nucleoprotein (NP). Conclusion: The antiviral activity of Acacia niloticaextracts indicates that a component or components of these extracts possess anti-influenza virus properties. To the best of our knowledge, this study revealed for the first time that Acacia nilotica extract can inhibit both viral attachment and replication and offers new insights into its underlying mechanisms of antiviral action.
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    Detection of Multi Drug Resistant TB Strains Using Conventional And Molecular Techniques
    (University of Khartoum, ) Ismat, Gusai Hussein Abdel Samad ; Al Amin Ibrahim Al Niema ; Pharmaceutics
    Background: - Multidrug-resistance against the first line drugs for treatment of tuberculosis arises when the patients fail to complete the prescribed doses, and when the concentration of the drugs inside their bodies is not enough to kill all of the causative bacteria .This may be attributed to stoppage of treatment by patients when they feel better or they are unable to pay for the whole regimen that takes months. The infectivity of MDRT-TB strains is not affected and they remain to be fully virulent as non - resistant strains. The study aimed to detect the multi- drug resistant TB strains using conventional and molecular techniques and to detect the mutations that may be found in an effort to decrease the time of diagnosis and to have more accurate results that lead to fast and effective treatment. Methods:- The study was done on patients with pulmonary tuberculosis at Abu-Anga Teaching Hospital , Omdurman province during the year 2005. Samples of sputum from in-patients suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis were collected. These samples were pretreated with 4%NaOH and cultivated on L.J. media. Conventional methods (68Co labile catalase test , Nitrates reduction test , growth on PNB medium were used to identify the isolates . Collection , transport, pretreatment of samples , inoculation, incubation, reading and reporting of growth were done according to the WHO instructions, (1998). Susceptibility to rifampicin and isoniazid (proportion method) was performed for the previously obtained isolates.DNA from 20 resistant isolates was extracted . Molecular techniques such as PCR, cloning and sequencing were performed to detect the KatG gene responsible for isoniazid resistance. Results :- During the year 2005 , 6736 patients visited the out-patient clinic of Abu-Anga Hospital, 4699 were males and 2037 females. Only 431 patients (322 males, 109 females) were admitted to the hospital. Three hundred and five isolates were obtained, identified as Mycobacterium complex. The sensitivity test for the 305 isolates showed that 238(92.8%) isolates were sensitive to both rifampicin and isoniazid. Nineteen (6.2%) isolates were resistant to both rifampicin and isoniazid .Two isolates were resistant to isoniazid only and one isolate was resistant to rifampicin only. Multidrug resistance was found in 6.2%.of the isolates. Mutation of type S315T was observed in 20 isolates. Conclusion:- The prevalence of MDR-TB was found to be 6.2 % among clinical isolates at Abu-anga Hospital. The results were obtained in short time when using molecular techniques rather than conventional ones which take time . This provides quick results and fast treatment for MDR-TB patients.
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    Acetylenes , 1,3- Dipolar Cycloaddition Studies
    (University of Khartoum, ) Ishag, christina yacoub
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    Aerobic Bacterial Agents in Infections of Coryza in the Sudan
    (University of Khartoum, 2015-06-22) Iman Mohamed El Nasri Hamza, Hamza ; Abdu El Dawi Abdalla
    The present investigation was carried out to determine aerobic bacteria present in infectious coryza in chickens. A total of 106 birds of both sex and different ages were examined. All birds showed symptoms similar to those of infectious coryza which included nasal discharge, sneezing, swollen sinuses, conjunctivitis lacrimation and in many cases complete closure of the eye with caseated material. Involvement of both eyes was very rare. A total of 145 samples from different sites were examined. Fifteen samples were bacteriologically sterile. Samples were taken from the infraorbital sinus, trachea, conjunctival sac and mouth cavity. The swabs were streaked on blood agar, chocolate agar, blood agar plus nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (V Fator), columbia agar, nutrient agar, MacConkey agar and PP10 agar for primary isolation. Different species of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were isolated. A total of 382 isolates were recovered and consisted 194 (50.72%) Gram-positive and 188 (49.28%) Gram-negative bacteria. Gram-positive isolates were Staphylococcus aureus, Staph. epidermidis. Micrococcus luteus, Micro. roseus, Micro. varians, Bacillus cereus, B. firmus, B. megaterium, B. pantothenticus, Corynebacterium murium, Actinomyces pyogenes. Gram-negative isolates were Pseudomonas aerugmosa. Pseu. fluorescens. Pseu. putida, Pseu. diminuta, Escherichia coli. Kelbsiela aerogenes, Klebsiella ozaenae, Morgenella morganii, Proteus vulgaris, Shigella flexineri, Moraxella lacunata, Branhamella catarrhalis Alcaligenes faecalis and Eikenella corrodens. The criteria used for the identification of the organisms were morphological appearance, reaction to Gram's stain and biochemical test. Twenty six Mycoplasma isolates were recovered from 75 samples from the trachea-sinus and mouth cavity. The isolates were Mycoplasma gallinarum, M. gallinaceum, M. anatis M. iners, Acholeplasma laidlawii was also isolated from nine samples.
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    Detection of Multidrug Resistance Genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among Patient Referred to the NTBRL
    (University of Khartoum, 2015-04-09) Abd Elmoniem, Reham ; Elamin Ibrahim Elnima ; microbiology
    The spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has become a major public health concern as these bacteria often cause incurable disease, even when expensive secondand third-line drugs are available