Department of Microbiology
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ItemBacterial Agents Associated with Diabetic Foot Infection in Patients Attending Khartoum and Omdurman Teaching Hospitals(University of Khartoum, )Bacteriological investigations were carried out for fifty patients presented with diabetic foot wounds, during Dec.2014 – Mar.2015 at the Omdurman and Khartoum teaching hospitals. Swab samples were collected from 50 patient’s wounds before debridement. Superficial swabs were collected from wounds surface and deep swabs were obtained from the deep wound surfaces. A total of 81 clinical bacterial isolates were identified to the species level on the bases of microscopical examination, Gram –reaction, cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. These isolates represented 22 different bacterial genera includingfourteen genera Gram-negative (63.63%)and the other eight genera of Gram-positive (36.36%). Poly-microbial infection was obtained in 27 patients (54%) ofdiabetic foot wounds and only 19 patients (38%) of diabetic wounds had mono-microbial etiology and no growth in 4 patients (8%) of diabetic foot wounds. Poly-microbial infection contained 2 to 5 isolates. Pseudomonas spp and Staphylococcus spp were isolated at the rate of 18.5% and13.5% respectively. They represented the most common causes of diabetic foot infection in this study. The Gram-negative isolates included Proteus Spp (11.1%),Pasteurella Spp (4.9%),Aeromonas Spp(3.7%),Klebsiella pneumonia (2.46%),Shewanellaputrefaciens (1.2%), Legionella oakridgensis (1.2%), Agrobacterium tumefaciens (1.2%), Streptobacillus moniliformis (1.2%), Salmonella pullorum (1.2%),Bordetella parapertussis (1.2%) , Branhamella catarrhalis (1.2%), Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (1.2%), Citrobacter freundii (1.2%).The Gram-positive isolates includedMicrococcus Spp (12.3%),Bacillus Spp (11.1%), Corynebacterium Spp (4.9%), Rothia dentocariosa(2.46%),Arcanobacterium hemolyticum (1.2%), leuconostoc Spp (1.2%) and kurthia zopfii (1.2%). There was 53.8% of isolate were sensitive to ceftizoxime and 95.2% of our isolate were resistant to ¬¬¬¬metronidazol , 88.9% were resistant toceftriaxone, and 84.6% were resistant to cefuroxime.. All S.aureus,Rothia dentocariosa, Kurthia zopfii, Shewanellaputrefaciens, Salmonella pullorum and P. haemolytica were resistant to the all antibiotics used. It is concluded that most patients with DSF seek care late and present with advance grade lesions. Lacks of self-care of foot and poly microbial infection are the risk factors of DSF. And 31 of patients are male and 19 female. I recommended that early aggressive surgical debridement may yields less microbiologically complex infections that might be controlled with less expensive narrow spectrum antibiotic therapy that may result in a less complex hospital course and improve the outcome.
ItemBacteria and Fungi Isolated from She-Camel mastitis In The Red Sea Area of the Sudan(University of Khartoum, 2003)There are two types of camels in the world: the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) and the two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus). The one humped camel populates the semiarid and arid tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and Asia, and has also been successfully introduced to other regions such as Australia; the Bacterian camels are bred in the cold regions of Asia (Knoess, 1979). The camel population in the world is estimated to be 18 millions camels; the Sudan and Somalia Constitute about 50% of all world camelidae and 55% of all dromedaries (Wilson, 1984). The Sudan holds about three millions and this represents 32% of the camel population in Africa and 20% of the total world camels. The distribution areas of camels in the Sudan are mainly in the arid and semi-arid part of the country; about 13°N and these are the areas where rainfall is low. Camels in the Sudan are classified as the riding (Light) or pack (Heavy) type according to the function which they perform (ELAmin, 1979). These are further classified into the riding camel which refer only to the Bishari and Anafi and the pack camel to the Arab and Rashaida camel (ELAmin, 1979). Camels are concentrated in two main regions; the Eastern States where the camels are found in Butana, Kassala and Red Sea Hills and the Western States (Darfur and Kordofan) where camels are found in the northern parts. The Red Sea Area is inhabited by different types of camels such as Bishari, Rashida and Anafi. The Bishari type is owned by the Beja tribes of the eastern Sudan. It is active, small sized but hardy; cannot carry much weight, but is fast and has more stamina. Camels are important in many arid areas where they play a central role as milk and meat producers for human consumption locally and for export. Camel milk is considered to be the main nutritional diet for camel breeders in the Sudan. The she-camel in the Sudan can produce an average of six litres of milk daily (Ibrahim, 1998). It is consumed raw by the owners and herders but rarely exploited commercially. It contains the necessary proteins and vitamins. Camel milk has not been processed into cheese or butter. Milk production in camel depends upon season, temperature and fodder supply (Knoess, 1979). The camel population in the Red Sea Area where this study was conducted has been estimated as 202106 heads (Anon, 2002). This area is bordered by the River Nile State on the west and Egypt in the north, Eritrea and Kassala in the south and the Red Sea on the east. The total area is about 210410 sq Km. Mastitis is a complex disease having different causes and different degrees of intensity. Although bacteria are the major microorganisms involved in this disease, fungi have also been incriminated and it should always be born in mind when determining the aetiology of chronic cause of udder infection. Most studies of mycotic mastitis have been focused on bovine infection and only a few reports have delt with infection in sheep and goats and none in camels. Review of literature revealed an unclear situation of mycotic mastitis in Sudanese she-camel. In this study special attention was paid to fungi in camel mastitis besides bacterial agents. The economic impact of this problem in the area of study was in form of lost milk due to mastitis which led to lesser consumption of this commodity by human or camel-calves leading to nutritional problems. The objectives of this study were: 1) To determine the incidence of the disease by field investigation, clinical examination and laboratory methods. 2) Determine the prevalence of microorganisms causing the disease. 3) To identify the bacterial and mycotic agents isolated from cases of clinical and sub-clinical she- camel mastitis. 4) To study the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of some bacterial isolates associated with the disease.