Department of Horticulture

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    Physico-Chemical Changes during Growth, Development and Ripening of Introduced Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Fruit Cultivars in Sudan
    (University of Khartoum, 2019) Hala Ahmed Abdalla Ahmed
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the physico chemical changes during growth, development and ripening of ‘Barhee’ and ‘Fard’ introduced date cultivars in Sudan, to provide base-line information regarding the biochemistry of the developing and ripening fruit, to assist in determining harvest maturity of date fruits and development of sound program for controlling date fruit ripening. Twelve palm trees were selected from each cultivar in the Horticultural Department orchard, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum at Shambat, Khartoum North. Tow experiments were carried out. In the first experiment, fruit samples were harvested at different stages of growth and development. The first sample was picked eight weeks after pollination (on April), and sampling continued every two weeks up to the physiological maturity (6 samples). Sixty to one hundred fruits (15-25 fruits per replication) from each cultivar of uniform size were picked at the designated stage, washed, air dried and arranged in a completely randomize design with four replications. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) at P ≤ 0.05 significant level was performed on the data, and the means were compared using LSD procedure computations by Microsoft Office Excel 2016. Physical and chemical changes were determined using standard methods. The fruits of both cultivars followed a typical sigmoid curve. Fruit fresh weight, volume, length, diameter and pulp/seed ratio progressively increased from 8 weeks after pollination (WAP) up to 16 WAP, at physiological maturity, and then remained constant. Fresh weight increased from 2.5 g and 2.9 g at 8 WAP to 9.7 g and 10.3 g at physiological maturity (16 WAP) in ‘Barhee’ and ‘Fard’ cultivars, respectively, and then remained constant. Fruit peel color score steadily increased from 1.0 (green) at 8 WAP in the two cultivars to 4.2 and 4.0 (75 % yellow) after 16 WAP in ‘Barhee’ and ‘Fard’ cultivars, respectively. Respiration rate steadily decreased from 25.6 and 23.7 mg CO₂/kg-hr at 8 WAP to 10.7 and 9.2 mg CO₂/kg hr at 18 WAP in ‘Barhee’ and ‘Fard’ cultivars, respectively. Dry matter content and total sugars increased with advancement in growth and development. Dry matter had increased from 48.2 and 37.7 % and total sugars from 3.4 and 3.3 g/100 g (8 WAP) to 92.8 and 89.4 % dry matter and to 6.0 and 6.4 g/100 g total sugars (18 WAP) in ‘Barhee’ and ‘Fard’ dates, respectively. Reducing sugars significantly increased from 7.6 and 7.7 g/100 g at 8 WAP to 8.4 and 8.5 g/100 g at physiological maturity (16 WAP), then slightly decreased to 8.1 and 8.2 g/100 g at 18 WAP in ‘Barhee’ and ‘Fard’ dates, respectively. Phenolic compounds steadily decreased during growth and development from 5.3 and 5.0 g/100 g (8 WAP) to 1.1 and 0.9 g/100 g (18 WAP) in ‘Barhee’ and ‘Fard’ dates, respectively. In the second experiment, compositional changes during date fruit ripening were investigated. Date fruits of ‘Barhee’ and ‘Fard’ were picked from the Horticultural Department orchard, at Shambat, Khartoum North at physiological maturity, 18 WAP. About 400 to 450 fruits from each cultivar were washed, air dried, placed in carton boxes, lined with polyethylene sheets and stored in the ripening room at 18±2 °C and 80-85 % relative humidity. Random samples of 15-20 fruits from each cultivar, in 4 replications, were removed every 2 days for determination of the different parameters using standard methods. Respiration rate curves of the two cultivars exhibit a typical climacteric pattern. It gradually increased from 10.5 and 9.7 mg CO2/kg-hr before ripening to 13.8 and 12.2 mg CO2/kg-hr after 4 days during ripening, sharply increased with a peak of respiration of 23.9 and 22.4 mg CO2/kg-hr after 12 days, and finally dropped to 14.1 and 12.8 mg CO2/kg-hr at the end of the 16 days ripening period in ‘Barhee’ and ‘Fard’ dates, respectively. Peel color, weight loss, total soluble solids (TSS) and total sugars progressively increased during date fruit ripening. Peel color score increased from 4.2 and 4.0 (50 % yellow) before ripening to 8.0 and 7.0 (yellowish-brown to brown) at the end of ripening period in ‘Barhee’ and ‘Fard’ dates, respectively. Weight loss increased up to 22.4 % in ‘Barhee’ and 18.3 % in ‘Fard’ dates at the end of the ripening period. TSS increased from 4.9 and 5.9 % and total sugars from 4.8 and 5.8 g/100 g before ripening to7.9 and 8.3 % TSS, and 7.9 and 8.4 g/100 g total sugars after 16 days of ripening in ‘Barhee’ and ‘Fard’ dates, respectively. While reducing sugars increased from 8.1 and 8.2 g/100 g before ripening to 9.2 and 9.8 g/100 g, reaching a peak at 6 days of ripening, and then decreased to 8.1 and 8.3 g/100 g at the end of the 16days ripening period in ‘Barhee’ and ‘Fard’ dates, respectively. Fruit flesh firmness and phenolic compounds steadily decreased during fruit ripening. Flesh firmness decreased from 10.0 and 9.0 kg/cm2 before ripening to 4.0 and 3.5 kg/cm2 , and phenolics decreased from 1.1 and 0.9 to 0.6 and 0.5 g/100 g during ripening in ‘Barhee’ and ‘Fard’ dates, respectively. It was recommended that ‘Barhee’ and ‘Fard’ dates should be picked at least at physiological maturity (16 WAP), where the fruit size, weight, volume and pulp/seed ratio are at their maximum values, respiration rate at the minimum level, dry matter content, total and reducing sugars are high, and phenolic compounds are reasonably low.
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    Effect of Organic and Chemical Fertilization on the Growth, Yield, Seed Oil Content and Oil Profile of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.)
    (University of Khartoum, 2015) Alaa Ahmed Altayeb Abdallh
    Abstract: This study was carried out in Shmbat at the Experimental Farm, of the Department of Horticultur , Faculty of Agricultur , University of Khartoum, during the period 2012- 2013. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of the organic, and chemical fertilization on plant growth, seed yield, seed oil content and oil profile of black cumin under the environmental conditions of Khartoum area. The design of the experiment was Randomized Complete Block Design. Treatments were the commercial organic fertilizer (Al-kherat), at the rate of 5040 Kg/fed, (organic), the chemical fertilizer (NPK 15:15:15) at the two rates of 300kg/fed, (NPK1), and 600kg/fed, (NPK2) and the control with no fertilization. The data collected after two months from planting were Plant height, number of branches per plant, number of flowers per plant, and number of capsules per plant,. At harvest total number of capsules per plant, number of productive capsules per plant, productive capsules %, number of seeds per capsule, and seed yield were recorded. Collected data were statistically analysed. Results of the data collected after two months from planting indicated that plant height, number of branches per plant, and number of flowers per plant were not significantly affected by the treatments, but the unfertilized plants (control) recorded the lowest values. The number of capsules per plant two months from planting, however was significantly different, with chemical fertilizer resulting in the highest value followed by organic fertilizer and the control. At harvest NPK2 gave the highest values of total number of capsules per plant, number of productive capsules per plant, and seed yield. The highest value of number of seeds per capsule was recorded from NPK1, NPK2, organic fertilizer, and control. Results showed no significant effect on both chemical and organic fertilization on seed oil content among treatments. There was no difference between the organic fertilizer and the other treatments in oil chemical profile regarding the main component (Lamda- linolenic acid). However, it had elaidic acid in place of oleic acid in other treatments. Generally chemical fertilization had more positive effect on yield than the organic fertilizer. Seed oil content was not affected by fertilization, but it was affected by the environment. The chemical fertilizer NPK was not effect on the fixed oil profiles, but the organic fertilizer had effect on the fixed oil profile in terms of fatty acid composition. المستخلص: أجريت هذه التجربة في شمبات بالحقل التجريبي لقسم البساتين بكليه الزرعة – جامعة الخرطوم خلال الموسم الزراعي 2012-2013 ، بهدف دراسة تاثير السماد العضوي و السماد الكيميائي علي نمو النبات والانتاجيه وكمية والتركيب الكيميائي للزيت المستخلص من بذور الحبه السوداء تحت الظروف البيئيه لولاية الخرطوم. تم تصميم التجربه علي نظام القطاعات الكاملة العشوائيه، بإستخدم معاملات السماد العضوي التجاري (الخيرات) بمعدل 5040 كيلوجرام للفدان, و السماد الكيميائي (NPK 15:15:15) بمعدلين : 300 كيلوجرام للفدان (NPK1), و600 كيلوجرام للفدان(NPK2) ، ثم الشاهد دون تسميد. القياسات التي جمعت بعد شهرين من الزراعة شملت طول النبات, عدد الافرع في النبات وعدد الازهار و عدد الكبسولات في النبات . عند الحصاد سجلة قيراءات العدد الكلي للكبسولات في النبات وعدد الكبسولات المنتجه في النبات وانتاجية البذور للفدان، و كميه الزيت في البذور وتكوينه الكيميائي. اوضحت النتائج ان طول النبات وعدد الافرع وعدد الازهار لم تتاثر معنويا بالمعاملات , ولكن نباتات الشاهد كانت الادنى. اما عدد الكبسولات في النبات كان اكبر في المعاملات بالسماد الكيميائي يليه العضوي واخيرا الشاهد. أعطت NPK2 ، عند الحصاد ، أعلي النتائج في العدد الكلي للكبسولات في النبات ، عدد الكبسولات المنتجه في النبات، وانتاجية البذور، كما تساوي معNPK1 في عدد البذور في الكبسوله والذي سجل فيه التسميد العضوي والشاهد اقل النتائج. لم تتاثر نسبة الزيت لم تتاثر بالمعاملات ، اما التركيب الكيميائي للزيت لم يختلف في المعامله بالتسميد العضوي مقارنه ببقية المعاملات في الحمض الدهني صاحب اكبر نسبة (Lamda- linolenic acid).) ، ولكن حل elaidic acid في المعامله بالسماد العضوي مكان oleic acid في باقي المعاملات. عموما التسميد الكيميائي لديه اثر إجابي علي الانتاجيه اكثر من التسميد العضوي . لم يتاثر محتوي البذره من الزيت بالتسميد ولكن تاثر بالبيئة. السماد الكيميائي (NPK) لم يؤثر علي تركيب الزيوت الثابتة ولكن السماد العضوي كان له اثر علي تركيب الزيوت الثابتة من ناحية تركيب الاحماض الدهنية.
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    Physico-Chemical Changes during Growth and Development of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Fruits
    (University of Khartoum, 2021-01) Abdalla Ahmed Abdalla Ahmed
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the physico-chemical changes during growth and development of ‘Joude1F1’ and ‘Amani1F1’ tomato fruits, to provide base - line information regarding the biochemistry of the developing fruit to assist in determination of harvest maturity of tomato fruits. Seventy five plants were selected from each cultivar in Horticultural Field in the University of Khartoum Farm at Shambat during October 2019 - February 2020 growing seasons, Soil type is clay loamy with relatively high clay content and pH 7.91- 8. At the time of flowering, the newly- opened flowers were tagged and fruit samples were harvested at different stages of growth and development. The first samples were picked two weeks after anthesis (WAA) and the sampling continued every two weeks up to the over-ripe stage (6 samples).Thirty fruits (10 fruits for each replication) per sample of uniform size and free of blemishes were picked at the designated stage, washed, air dried and arranged in a completely randomized design, with three replications. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) at p > 0.05 significant level was performed on data using program Statistix 8 - Linear Models. Physical and chemical changes were determined using standard methods. The fruits of both cultivars followed a typical sigmoid curve. Fruit flesh weight, volume, length, diameter and color (laycopen pigment) progressively increased from 2 weeks after anthesis (WAA) up to 8 , at physiological maturity, and then remained constant. Fresh weight increased iv from 17.76g and 23.68g at 2 weeks to 136.78g and 157.09g at physiological maturity (8 WAA) in ‘Joude 1 F1 and ‘Amani 1 F1’ cultivars, respectively. Fruits density and firmness decreased during fruit growth and development. The tomato fruits exhibited a typical climacteric pattern of respiration. Respiration rate decreased from 85.4 and 72.8 mg CO2/kg-hr at 2 )WAA( to 28.7 and 24.7 mg CO2/kg-hr in ‘Joude 1 F1 and ‘Amani 1 F1’ cultivars, respectively and then increased to 45.4 and 32.7 mg CO2/kg-hr and then decreased afterwards to 19.9 and 8.0 mg CO2/kg-hr at the canning - ripe stage in ‘Joude 1 F1 and ‘Amani 1 F1’ cultivars, respectively. Titratable acidity content increased from 0.21% and 0.37 % at 2 WAA to 0.53 (6 WAA) and 0.64% (8WAA) in ‘Joude 1 F1’ and ‘Amani 1 F1’ cultivars, respectively and then decreased to 0.26 and 0.50 % at the canning - ripe stage (12 WAA) in ‘Joude 1 F1’ and ‘Amani 1 F1’ cultivars, respectively. Ascorbic acid content increased from 10.8 mg/100g and 12.5 mg/100g at 2 (WAA( to 27.08 mg/100g at 8 (WAA) and 26 at (10WAA) and decreased from 18.9 and 20 mg/100g at the canning - ripe stage (12 WAA) in ‘Joude 1 F1’ and ‘Amani 1 F1’ cultivars, respectively. It was concluded that, Tomato fruits should be picked at least at physiological maturity (8WAA) in Joude 1 F1 and Amani 1 F1 cultivars, where the fruit fresh weight, volume, dimensions (length and diameter) are at their maximum values, reasonably color (light - pink) and firm, respiration rate is low, ascorbic acid content is high.
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    Morphological and Phytochemical Variations among Some Ocimum Species and Subspecies Grown in Sudan
    (University of Khartoum, 2020) Hala Abdel-Moniem Ahmed Hussien
    Abstract: This research was conducted during March 2017 - April 2018 to study the morphological and phytochemical variations among some Ocimum species and subspecies grown in Sudan in terms of growth, essential oil content and profiles of leaves and flowers. Seven Ocimum spp were used in this experiment. The layout of the experiment was Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates; treatments were the Ocimum species and subspecies. Parameters measured were plant length, number of branches per plant, fresh biomass per plant (g) and productivity of fresh biomass (ton / hectare), moisture content of leaves, number of days to start of flowering, number of weeks from sowing to maturity, essential oil content and composition of leaves and flowers. Data collected were statistically analysed according to the procedure described by Gomez and Gomez (1984). The highest plant length (115.1 cm) was obtained from O. basilicum L. (Baladi), while the shortest (64.7 cm) was obtained from O. americanum L. (Wild). The highest number of branches per plant (859) was obtained from O. americanum L. (Wild), while the lowest (386) was obtained from O. basilicum L. (Green). No significant differences were detected among species and subspecies for the fresh biomass per plant and productivity of fresh biomass (ton / hectare); the highest values, 1349 g / plant and 48.1 ton / hectare were recorded respectively from O. basilicum L. (Baladi) and the lowest values, 494 g / plant and 17.6 ton / hectare were recorded respectively from O. americanum L. (Lime). The highest moisture content of leaves (86%) was obtained from O. basilicum L. (Green), while the lowest (78%) was obtained from O. tenuiflorum L. (Clove). The shortest number of days to start of flowering (39 days) and the shortest number of weeks to maturity (21.5 weeks) were obtained from O. americanum L. (Wild), while the latest start of flowering (113 days) and the latest maturity (53.7 weeks) were obtained from O. basilicum var. thyrsiflorum L. (White). The highest essential oil content of leaves (3%) was obtained from O. americanum L. (Wild), while the lowest (1%) was obtained from O. tenuiflorum L. (Clove) and O. basilicum L. (Egyptian). The highest essential oil content of flowers (2.8%) was obtained from O. basilicum L. (Baladi), while the lowest (1%) was obtained from O. americanum L. (Lime). Oil composition showed that Linalool was the most predominant component in leaves’ and flowers’ oil of Ocimum spp followed by Eugenol and Eucalyptol (Cineole). Oxygenated monoterpenes were the most predominant components in the oils followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and phenylpropanoids. It was concluded that, great morphological and developmental variability as well as oil content differentiations were found for the studied Ocimum plants. The essential oil composition was considerably different quantitatively as well as qualitatively among Ocimum spp and varieties. المستخلص: أجري هذا البحث لدراسة التباين في النمو، المحتوي و التركيب الكيميائي للزيت الطيار للأوراق و الأزهارفي أنواع و أصناف الريحان التي تزرع في السودان. أُستخدم في هذه التجربة سبعة أنواع مثلت المعاملات في التجربة. كان تصميم التجربة القطاعات العشوائية الكاملة بثلاثة مكررات. البيانات التي جُمعت كانت طول النبات ، عدد الفروع في النبات ، الكتلة الحيوية الرطبة للنبات (جم) و الإنتاجية (طن / هكتار) ، محتوي الرطوبة في الأوراق ، عدد الأيام حتي بداية الإزهار ، عدد الاسابيع من زراعة البذور و حتي إكتمال النضج ، المحتوي و التركيب الكيميائي للزيت الطيار للأوراق و الأزهار .تم تحليل البيانات إحصائياً حسب طريقة (Gomez and Gomez, 1984) . أعلي طول نبات 115.1) سم( رصد في (البلدي) O. basilicum L. و أقصر طول نبات (64.7 سم) رصد في (البري) O. americanum L. . أكثر عدد فروع في النبات (859) رصد في (البري) O. americanum L. وأقل عدد فروع (386) رصد في (الأخضر) O. basilicum L. . لم توجد فروق معنوية في الكتلة الحيوية الرطبة للنبات و الإنتاجية و لكن أعلي قيم كانت 1349 جم / نبات ، 48.1 طن / هكتار رُصدتا في (البلدي) .O. basilicum L و أقل قيم 494 جم / نبات ، 17.6 طن / هكتار رُصدتا في (الليموني) O. americanum L. . أعلي محتوي رطوبة في الأوراق كان 86 % رصد في (الأخضر) O. basilicum L. و أقل محتوي رطوبة كان 78 % رصد في (القرنفلي) O. tenuiflorum L. أقل عدد أيام حتي بداية الإزهار و أقل عدد أسابيع من الزراعة حتي النضج رصدتا في (البري) O. americanum L. و كانتا 39 يوم ، 21.5 اسبوع علي التوالي. أطول عدد أيام حتي بداية الإزهار و أطول عدد أسابيع من الزراعة حتي النضج رصدتا في (الأبيض)O.basilicum var. thyrsiflorum L. و كانتا 113 يوم ، 53.7 اسبوع علي التوالي . أعلي محتوي زيت في الأوراق ( 3 %) رصد في (البري) O. americanum L. و أقل محتوي زيت ( 1 %) رصد في (القرنفلي) O. tenuiflorum L. و (المصري) O. basilicum L. . أعلي محتوي زيت في الأزهار ( 2.8 %) رصد في (البلدي) .O. basilicum L و أقل محتوي زيت (1 %) رصد في (الليموني) O. americanum L. . Linalool هو أكثر مركب سائد في زيت الأوراق و الأزهار يليه Eugenol وEucalyptol (Cineole) . Oxygenated monoterpenes هي أكثر المركبات شيوعا في هذه الزيوت يليها Sequiterpene hydrocarbons و Phenylpropanoids . نستخلص من هذه الدراسة وجود تباين مورفولوجي كبير و أيضا تباين في محتوي الزيت بين أنواع و أصناف الريحان ، هنالك إختلافات كبيرة من حيث كمية و نوعية المكونات الكيميائية للزيت الطيار بين أنواع و أصناف الريحان .
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    Effect of Natural Waxes on Quality and Storability of Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L.) Fruits
    (University of Khartoum, 2018-04) Saad, Suhair Mohamed-Elamin Hassan
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three natural waxes (bee, carnauba and jojoba) on quality and storability of ‘Sinnari’ and ‘Nori-16’ sweet orange cultivars. Orange fruits of the two cultivars were harvested at the mature-green stage from a private orchard at Shendi, River Nile State. Fruits were selected for uniformity in size, color and freedom from blemishes and defects, and transported in filed boxes to the laboratory of the Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum. The fruits were washed, treated with 0.1 % sodium hypochlorite (Clorox, 5 %) as a disinfectant then air dried. The waxes were dissolved in olive oil (1:1) and applied by brushing over the surface of the fruits in a thin layer. The treatments were: bee wax, carnauba wax, jojoba wax and untreated (control) fruits, arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications. The treated and untreated fruits were stored in carton boxes for 18 weeks at 4±1 ºC and 85-90 % relative humidity in a cold room at Wafra for Modern Storage Co. Ltd., Khartoum North. Analysis of variance and Fisher’s LSD at a significance level of P≤ 5% was performed on the data using SAS (version 8) statistic. The results showed that the three natural waxes treatments significantly delayed senescence, reduced losses, maintained quality and extended shelf-life of ‘Sinnari’ and ‘Nori 16’ sweet orange fruits during storage for 18 weeks at 4±1 ºC and 85-90 % relative iv humidity. The results indicated that the wax treatments significantly decreased respiration rate (30.3, 21.3 & 12.3) %, reduced water loss (32.5, 12.7 & 7.8)%, decreased peel color (31.7, 23.3 & 13.3)%, fruit softening (16.5, 12.4 & 6.8)%, and total soluble solids accumulation ( 10.4, 7.1 & 4.1)% and increased the retained ascorbic acid content (45.4, 31.6 &20.5)%, in fruit treated with bee wax, jojoba wax and carnauba wax, respectively, compared with unwaxed (control) fruits. Bee wax was the most effective, followed by jojoba wax and least was carnauba wax. It was recommended that natural waxes, especially bee and jojoba waxes can effectively be used to delay fruit senescence, reduce weight loss, maintain quality and extend shelf-life and storability of sweet orange fruits