Vol.11, No. 1, 2003

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    A Note on the Effect of Malt Pretreatment on Tannin Content of Sorghum Flour
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 2003) Elkhalil, E.I. ; El Tinay, A.H. ; B.E., Mohamed ; Elsheikh, E.A.E.
    Samples of one, two and three days old sorghum malt were added in concentrations of 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% to the sorghum flour of the cultivar Wadahmed (0.96% tannin). The mixtures were incubated for 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes to determine reduction in tannin content. The results indicated that the treatments significantly decreased the tannin content. The 10% three days old malt treatment reduced the tannin content by 91.5%, after 120 minutes. The results also indicated that the rate of reduction of tannin content increases with the time of incubation, the age and the concentration of the malt.
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    Evaluation of Growth Rate of Sudan Nubian and Crossbred Kids
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 2003) Abu Nikhaila, A.M.A. ; El Hag, K.O.
    Forty, one-day old, Nubian and Nubian x Saanen kids were used in a completely randomized block design to investigate the effect of breed and sex of kid on growth performance. The growth performance was monitored by birth weights and average daily and monthly weight gains from birth up to the 7th month of age. The kids were allowed free suckling for the first four weeks of age, then twice daily until weaning at the 10th week of age. A starter ration was offered adlibitum starting from the 4th week through the 7th month of age. The results indicated nonsignificant effect of both breed and sex on birth weight and monthly weights throughout the study period. The dry matter intake (DMI) of Nubian females was significantly (P<0.05) less than Nubian male kids during the growth period 5-10 and 21-28 weeks of age. The DMI of crossbred male and female kids was similar. Sex and breed had no effect on average daily gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) throughout the study period. However, the FCR declined dramatically during the 11th to 20th week of age, which coincided with post-weaning period. Despite the nonsignificant effect of 50% crossing on the studied traits, crossing appeared to favour a higher growth rate which may, with improved management, shorten the period to slaughter weights and economize rearing costs of kids.
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    Effect of Soil Drying on Water Relations and Growth of Four Provenances of Acacia senegal Seedlings
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 2003) Khalil, A.A.M. ; Siam, A.M.J.
    Variation in shoot water relations and biomass production and partitioning during drought were evaluated in 6-month old seedlings of Acacia senegal from four geographically diverse sources (viz: El-fashir and Hawata from Sudan, Windou-tiengloy from Senegal and Dha-bi-ji from Pakistan). The seed sources were divided into two categories: xeric (El-fashir and Dha-bi-ji) and mesic (Hawata and Windou-tiengloy) on the basis of moisture gradients. Seedlings were grown in long soil columns with high water holding capacity under uncontrolled environment. Half of the seedlings of each provenance were subjected to water stress, while the rest was kept well-watered (control). Progressive soil drying significantly reduced water potential of all provenances; however, xeric provenances maintained higher shoot water balance under severe soil drying than mesic provenances. Dha-bi-ji exhibited significantly lower shoot, root, total biomass and root/shoot ratio compared to the other provenances under irrigated conditions. However, soil drying reduced significantly shoot, root growth, total biomass and specific leaf area of all provenances, with the exception of Dha-bi-ji, compared to well-watered seedlings. Drought induced a considerable shift in biomass allocation pattern of Dha-bi-ji seedlings in favour of root growth, which resulted in 13% increase in root weight and 27% increase in root:shoot ratio. The results indicate that Dha-bi-ji had the most conservative growth strategy, a response characteristic associated with drought-avoidance mechanisms. Based on the physiological and morphological observations, Dha-bi-ji would be the most suitable provenance for establishment of plantations in arid lands.
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    The Use of Ziziphus spina-christi (L) Willd. as a Component of Integrated Farming System in Wadi Hadhramout Tributaries, Yemen
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 2003) Elsiddig, E.A. ; Bataher, A.S.
    Ziziphus spina-christi is one of the most important tree species in the forest community of Wadi Hadhramout and its tributaries and an important component in the integrated land use system. The objective of the present study was to assess the benefits provided by Z. spina-christi to the local people in Wadi Shohouh and Wadi Dammoun (tributaries of Wadi Hadhramout) that encourage farmers to select it, protect its natural regeneration and maintain it as a component of their farming system. The study was also concerned with the evaluation and documentation of the management practices and the sustainable maintenance of Z. spina-christi as adopted by the farmers, based on indigenous knowledge. Its occurrence and distribution and the associated tree species in the natural structure and in relation to agricultural practices in Wadi Hadhramout were surveyed using systematically distributed sample plots along equidistant lines. The frequency of tree species as from Wadi top to down stream was measured at different land use practices. Farmers' perception towards Z. spina-christi was assessed using a questionnaire. Farmers prefer the species and maintain its existence in their farming system while they clear other species.
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    Description of Basiria gracilis and Boleodorus thylactus (Nemata: Tylenchidae) From the Fields of Sugarcane in Sudan
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 2003) Ibnouf, A.A. ; Zeidan, A.B. ; Abdalla, S.A.
    Basiria gracilis is reported for the first time from Sudan. The three populations collected were characterized by their moderately long, slender rather straight bodies when fixed in formalin with very long filiform tails. Lateral field with only two lines and the cephalic region with smooth, non-annulated truncate shape. Amphidial apertures appear as large slits, usually oblique. The female genital system is monodelphic, prodelphic anteriorly outstretched. Males provided with short adanal bursa. The population of Boleodorus thylactus is the second Boleodorus species described from Sudan, and described for the first time with relatively short bodies upon fixation. The lateral field equally divided into three areas, i.e., with four lines. The basal portion of the labial framework obscurely hexagonal and the amphidial apertures, as shown by the scanning electron microscope are minute, oval and located at one-third the way back on the lip region. Female genital system monodelphic, prodelphic anteriorly outstretched. No males were seen.