Department of Physical Planning and Urban Design

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    مقترحات لحل المشاكل التخطيطية والبيئية بالمنطقة الصناعية بحرى
    (جامعة الخرطوم, 2014) الزاكى بابكر الفكى
    ملخص الدراسة يعتبر القطاع الصناعى حجر الأساس بالنسبة للبناء الاقتصادى فى الدول النامية مما أدى الى إقامة المناطق الصناعية فى ولايات السودان. وعليه لقد قامت ثلاث مناطق صناعية بولاية الخرطوم فى مدن العاصمة المثلثة. ولكن لغياب التخطيط الشامل أصبحت تلك المناطق أماكن للكوارث التخطيطية والبيئية بسبب الزحف العمرانى حولها. حيث قام الباحث بدراسة المنطقة الصناعية بمدينة الخرطوم بحرى لإنها أكبر المناطق الصناعية بالبلاد بدءاً بدراسة الوضع الراهن بالمنطقة وإبراز المشاكل التخطيطية المتمثلة فى موقعها وسط المناطق الصناعية وتداخل المؤسسات التعليمية والعسكرية وأسواق السيارات وبعض السكن داخل مربعاتها الصناعية بالإضافة لمشكلات التوزيع الداخلى للقطع وإنفجار خطوط إمداد المياه وإنهيار مجارى الصرف الصحى. مع إحداث المشاكل البيئية المتمثلة فى المخلفات الصناعية الملوثة والضوضاء بسبب مرور الشاحنات وأصوات الماكينات على مناطق السكن. استخدم الباحث عدد من الأساليب المختلفة فى جمع المعلومات وتحليلها للوصول إلى الحلول الممكنة لحماية السكن من أضرار الصناعة عبر النظريات التخطيطية وإستخدام الأسس والمعايير التصميمية والتخطيطية فى إقامة المناطق الصناعية لإعادة تأهيل منطقة الدراسة بإقامة الصناعات الغير ملوثة أو إخراج الصناعة من المدينة حسب الإمكانية الإقتصادية للبلاد. وبناءاً على ماسبق قد وضع الباحث ثلاث مقترحات لحل قضية منطقة الدراسة كمايلى:- 1. مقترح تأهيل وتحسين الوضع القائم بالمنطقة الصناعية بحرى. وهو الأمثل على المدى القريب. 2. مقترح تقسيم المنطقة الى قسمين: - القسم الصناعى. - القسم التجارى والترفيهي. وهو الأمثل على المدى المتوسط. 3. مقترح إخلاء المنطقة كلياً من الصناعة وإخراجها خارج المدينة. وهو الأمثل على المدى البعيد. Abstract The industrial sector is considered the corner stone of the economic building of the developing state, a matter which led to the establishment of industrial areas in Sudan states. Thus three industrial areas were established in Khartoum state in the three cities of the Capital but unfortunately these areas became disastrous, in both environmental and planning aspects, due to the absence of comprehensive planning, and also the housing encroachment around them. The researcher conducted this study on the industrial area of Khartoum north (BAHRI) because it is the largest industrial area in the country and started by studying the status quo of the area and addresses the planning problems represented in its site which is located in the middle of the residential areas, the interference of educational and military institutions, car markets and some residences inside its industrial blocks, in addition to the internal distribution and the explosion of water supply lines, poor sanitation. There are also problems of industrial wastes pollution, noise pollution due to movement of heavy traffic and the sound of engines which affected the residence areas. The researcher has made use of many methodologies in collecting data and analyzing them in order to reach possible solutions to protect the residential areas from industrial hazard through the application planning theories, as a basis for designing and planning standard in establishing industrial areas in order to rehabilitate the study area to establish the unpolluted industry or get them out of the city according to the economic potentiality of the country. The researcher has recommended three proposals as follows:- 1. Current situation improvement proposal and it is the best for short-term planning. 2. Proposal for splitting the area into two sections which is suitable for medium term planning. A-Theindustrial section. B- The commercial and entertaining section. 4. Proposal of excluding the industrial activity from the area which is a long-term best option.
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    A study of Visual Composition and Imageability of Omdurman Market
    (University of Khartoum, ) Ahmed, Amanda Musa Hassen ; Ibrahim Zakrya Baher-Aldin ; Department of Physical Planning and Urban Design
    The study summarizes the visual composition of Omdurman market by emphasizing the competition and the imbalance in the visual and aesthetic form of the market between the old vernacular identity and the progressive modern image. The study aims at assessing the current situation of the market image, studying the obstacles and difficulties facing development, identifying the sources of characteristics that affect the visual elements, evaluating the current state of visual composition through the visual elements of the area and emphasizing the role of urban planning and design in shaping the visual and aesthetic of the market. The methodology used the Kevin Lynch’s method to evaluate the visual image of the city with its five elements visual composition: Districts, Edges, Paths, Nodes, and Landmarks. Information gathered from official authorities, researchers' observations and studies of market image, field survey, and stakeholder interviews. The study worked on presenting features from the study area as a whole then focused on the details of Al Mawrada Street, Abu Marin Street, and Al-Sagha Street. The study concluded that the image of the visual optical market of Omdurman, suffers from problems of visual distortion, and the interface is multiple in the external shape of the building, which works to interrupt the visual communication, and there are sources of influence in the image formative aesthetic of the market. Some of these problems are attributed to official relations such as a building terrace, billboards, parapets and sidewalks, as well as a lack of aesthetic and visual public spaces, and elements such as street furniture and green spaces, as well as lack of public services and facilities such as parking lots, latrines, umbrellas and sitting areas. It also concluded the disarrangement of the local authorities, the competent ministries, the syndicate of market trader and civil society to maintain the image of the market in order to show the real image of Omdurman history and the identity of the market that the market will continue to develop as a traditional heritage and tourist attraction point.
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    Development of Bahri Industrial Area
    (university of Khartoum, 2016-03-23) Ranya Adam Mohakar Hamad ; El Waleed Abdel Aziz
    This study aimed to investigate the current planning and economics problems that have accompanied Bahri industrial area since its inception, and to understand the industry processes to highlight the successes and failures in it. The thesis emphasized on the historical background of Bahri industrial area andthe strategicallocation together with thelarge area compared tootherindustrial areas in Khartoum. The research methodology was based on collecting data through sites visits, meetings with officials and factories’ owners, observations and then synthesizing and analyzing the data. The study results identified the planning problems such asbad exploitationof land, lack of asphalted roads and public services which badly affected the industryproductions. In addition to economic problems such as customs, taxes, leviesand other feesimposed on owners of the factories which break the industrial processes and stalled many of factories.Besides, the environmental effects of the industry due to the emissions. The researchrecommended for the development of Bahri industrial area in order to encourage investors to take overidle factories, confirm provision of infrastructure and basic services.In addition, to find formulas, laws and regulations for the purpose of cooperation and integration between the public and private sectors, to take advantage of the current ingredients and develop themto findsolutions and alternatives to the obstacles and problems in Bahri industrial area.
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    Environmental Enhancement at Urban Industrial Areas in Greater Khartoum. (A Case Study of Omdurman Old Industrial Area)
    (UOFK, 2015-06-28) Ahmed Malik Osman, Ali ; Abdel Halim Awad ; Physical Planning
    The objective of this study is to identify the characteristics of the industrial study area and its environmental problems in relation to their development origins، planning process، level of services and organizational structure. A theoretical background that covered the principles of planning and management of industrial areas is presented. A case study of the environmental and planning aspects of Omdurman old industrial area is attempted. Data and information of the study area covering its geographical and landuse patterns (industrial، workshops، commercial، and services) were collected. The data was analyzed and processed using the GIS (Geographical Information System) packages. The result revealed that the study area has experienced a partial landuse changes، where the primary plots (630) were proliferated into 1946 plots running various industrial، commercial، workshops، and services activity. This was mainly due to economic and management factors leading to numerous environmental problems. Moreover، these problems were exacerbated by inadequate basic and infrastructure services، in addition to the misuse of land. Conceptually the emergence of these problems is not unlikely in absence of a well-designed plan preceding the establishment of the area. A serious incompatibility in the landuse pattern of the study area (as coded by planners) and the existing situation demand urgent planning studies specifically designed for the industrial area. Such studies should make full use of the latest information technology (e.g. GIS) for prediction and forecasting of a dynamic environment that vary economically and socially. In this context، this study provides basic information and guidelines using such techniques deemed necessary for the enhancement and development of the industrial area.
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    The Environmental Impacts of the Distribution of Industries in Khartoum Metropolitan Area
    (UOFK, 2015-04-27) Mohamed, Mohamed Mansour ; Dr. Mohamed Yaqoub Shaddad ; Architecture
    Sudan is a unique country which lies in Africa and has boundaries with nine African and Arabic countries. These vast boundaries eased immigration to Sudan from the surrounding countries which had its tangible impacts upon the increase of population in Sudan. Also, it worth mentioning, the internal immigration to Khartoum, the capital, from the surrounding regions shared an active part in increasing the population in Khartoum Metropolitan Area. With the increasing ratio of population in the metropolitan area, which leads to the increase of consumption and purchasing power, together with the existence of labor as a result of internal and external migrations, several industries had been established. These industries were located amongst certain areas due to some leading factors. Among the factors that lead to the establishment of these industries in Khartoum Metropolitan Area we find that low cost of production due to the provision of the basic infrastructure beside the fluent marketing system. These factors, as examples, had lead to the increase of the industrial areas in Khartoum Metropolitan Area. Most of these industries were established and distributed without proper and essential planning considerations. As a consequence of such improper distribution of industries many environmental problems had emerged and had a black shadow on different environmental issues. This study tries to investigate and assess the environmental impacts resulted from the improper distribution of industries amongst Khartoum Metropolitan urban area. The study took place in certain areas which are: Khartoum Industrial Area, Khartoum North Industrial Area and Omdurman Industrial Area, with special focus on Omdurman area as it represents the main study area of tanning industry in Khartoum Metropolitan area. Choice of tanning industry was set depending on certain criteria such as the future importance, vitality and Viability of this industry on the Sudanese economy. On the other hand, this industry has its severe environmental impacts which should be investigated and revealed. Field work included questionnaires, worksheets, setting maps, voice records for citizens, photographs as well as observation. 7 The study succeeded in establishing evidence that there are many environmental problems occurred as a consequence of inadequate planning as well as the unbalanced administrative decisions. Emergence of such results leads to conclusions and recommendations which confirm the need to new administrative methods and planning concepts to cope with such environmental problems.