Vol. 8, No. 2, 2000

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    A Note on the Performance of Atriplex Under Different Irrigation Regimes on a Saline Clay Soil
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 2000) Hago, T.E.M ; Mustafa, M.A. ; Baraka, A.
    This work was undertaken to study the performance of Atriplex under different irrigation regimes on a salt-affected soil in the University of Khartoum Farm at Shambat. Three irrigation treatments were used in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The results of the first season showed that irrigation regime has a significant effect on green forage yield of Atriplex and a marked but non- significant effect on dry forage yield. In the second season, however, neither green nor dry forage yields were significantly affected by irrigation regime. The average dry forage yield was 10.9 t/ha in the first season and 7.7 t/ha in the second season. Generally, irrigation regime did not have a marked effect on the chemical composition of Atriplex.
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    The Trend and Pattern of Cereal Production, Consumption and Trade in the Sudan during 1961-95
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 2000) Abdelrahman, A.H.
    Cereal grains are the most important calorie source in the Sudanese diet. An understanding of cereals' production characteristics in the Sudan is important for maintaining efficient and sustainable agricultural and food production. This paper analyses Sudanese cereals by examining trends in their production, consumption, and trade during the past four decades, and identifies the elements that might affect future production and import demand. The focus was on sorghum, wheat and millet. Data were collected from the production and trade yearbooks of the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) for various years. The findings showed that the expansion of arable land did not bring about the expected increase in production. Also, the total cereal consumption rose at an average annual rate higher than the production rate. To meet the shortfall between cereal consumption and production, cereal imports, especially wheat, increased. Wheat imports have exerted a heavy burden on the Sudan's meagre and deteriorating foreign exchange resources and have worsened its negative trade balance. Therefore, the domestic resources for wheat production should be fully utilised. The gap between potential yield and farmers' yield levels needs to be closed. Price incentives are also a critical element if producers are to be motivated to achieve higher yield and output levels. It is broader than just that of increasing the nominal price of a given crop.
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    Characteristics and Factors Affecting Lactation Curves in Dairy Cows in the Gezira ( Sudan)
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 2000) Ali, T.I. ; Abdelraheem, M.A. ; Elimam, M.E.
    The Wood gamma function was used to describe the first three lactations in 180 Kenana and Butana breeds and their 50% crosses with exotic dairy breeds, mainly Friesians, in Elneshasheba dairy farm in Wad Medani (Sudan), from 1971 to 1989 .The percentage of atypical curves was 33, and was higher in local breeds, especially Kenana (43.9), and in the first two lactations. Breed, parity, age at first calving, sire and season x year interaction significantly (P< 0.05) affected most lactation curve traits. Crossbred cows exceeded local breeds in most traits, and milk yield increased with age. The first two lactations were more persistent, and peak lactation was observed in 6.44-12.43 weeks after calving. The correlations between different traits are described, and heritabilities were 0.12,0.09,0.32, 0.23,0.043 and 0.18 for initial yield, increasing slopes, decreasing slopes, total yield, average yield and persistency, respectively.
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    Behaviour of Some Bread Improvers in Arabic, White Pan Bread and Frankfurter Rolls
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 2000) Al-Eid, S.M.
    The effects of monoglycerides (MG) and alpha amylase with ascorbic acid (AA) on the final quality of Arabic (Pita) bread, white pan bread and frankfurter rolls were investigated. Pita bread supplemented with MG had significantly higher evenness of layers, grain appearance, and grain uniformity, leading to significantly increased overall score compared with other treatments. All supplemented pita breads did significantly differed from the control in the ability to roll and fold and quality of tearing, but these characteristics decreased upon storage. The penetrometer reading (penetrated distance) was significantly lower for the second than the first day as a result of staling of pita bread for all treatments. Loaf volume was significantly the highest for white pan breads containing AA. Total score was significantly higher for white pan breads with added MG and AA than the control. No significant difference in the total score between breads with MG and AA was obtained. White pan bread with AA was significantly more stable against staling for the first and third day than breads with MG and the control. There was no significant difference in the penetrated distance between white pan breads with MG and the control at first, third, fifth, and seventh day of storage. At the seventh day of storage, white pan breads did not show any significant differences in softness among all treatments. Frankfurter Rolls with AA exhibited a significantly higher volume than those from the control and with MG. Frankfurter rolls from control bread or from bread with MG treatments were not significantly softer than bread with AA at the first day. There was no significant difference in softness among all frankfurter rolls for the second and the fourth day of storage.
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    Effects of Mycorrhizal Inoculation and Phosphorus Application on the Nodulation, Mycorrhizal Infection and Yield Components of Faba Bean Grown Under Two Different Watering RegimesPRIVATE
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 2000) Ahmed, F.E. ; Yagoub, S.O. ; Elsheikh, E.A.E.
    A field experiment was conducted in the 1994/95 and 1995/96 growing seasons to investigate the effects of mycorrhizal inoculation and phosphorus application on infection, symbiotic activity and yield of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) grown under two watering regimes. Water stress significantly decreased nodule number, flower set, pod production and seed yield in both seasons. Substantial mycorrhizal infection occurred with low P concentration under both well-watered and dry soil conditions. However, at high soil P, mycorrhizal infection was not suppressed in the dry watering regime as it was in the well-watered treatment. Mycorrhizal inoculation significantly increased nodule number, nodule dry weight, flower set, pod production and seed yield compared to non-mycorrhizal plants under both watering regimes, but P application alone had no significant effect on all the above mentioned parameters. The stimulation of faba bean symbiotic activity and seed yield by mycorrhizal inoculation was suppressed by the application of phosphorus.