Department of Epidemiology

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    Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hepatitis B and C among the population at Algamosi Locality-Gezira State-Sudan-2019
    (University of Khartoum, 2020) Youssouf Amin Goni Mohamed
    Abstract Background: Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) remain a global health challenge and are transmitted via contact with contaminated blood and body fluids. The aim of this study was to study the epidemiology of hepatitis B and C infections among populations of Algamosi area, Gezira state central Sudan. Methodology: This a cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in four villages; 492 populations were selected using the simple random sample technique. A structured questionnaire pretested for reliability and validity including demographic data. Screened for HBsAg and anti-HCV utilizing commercially available rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) or immunoassays. Then confirmed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: Prevalence of hepatitis B was 16.10%and was higher among males than females (05.7-1.00).Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence was 1.0% and it increased after the age of >45 years. While 0.200% was found to be co-infected with both the viruses. Individuals within ages 31-45 years had the highest prevalence of 27 (20.600%) for HBV infection. This study showed that the prevalence of hepatitis B was high but similar rate in the community local of Algamosi. Hepatitis C viruses only detected in three area. Of the participants, (2.700% and1.400%), had evidence of previous history of jaundice and tattooing were significant reactive for HBsAg and anti-HCV. Among the possible risk factors (26.50% and 4.780%) had evidence of previous history of surgical Procedure and (15.90% and 2.300%) had evidence of previous history of blood transfusion were reactive for HBsAg and anti-HCV. (14.70%), (16.20%) (11.90%) and (12.70%) had evidence of previous history of dental procedure, shaving, sharing razors and multiple partners were positive for HBV respectively. This study also revealed that, there was a significant association between viral hepatitis and its knowledge toward the transmission and prevention Conclusion: The study concluded that the Prevalence of hepatitis B infection was 16.1% it was higher among males than females (5.70- 01) and the most affected age group with HBV (20.60%). The prevalence of HCV and co-infection was (1.00%) and (0.20%) respectively and it increased after the age of > 45 years old. Based on the findings the study recommended the crucial intervention programme to screen the most of Algamosi population who have been not screened for HBV or HCV, vaccination for HBV, proper treatment for both HBV and HCV, surveillance for those was positive for both infection to reduce the complications, The health education program is strongly recommended to create and enhance awareness among the general population. المستخلص الخلفية: يعد التهاب الكبد الوبائي ب و س تحديًا صحيًا عالميًا وينتقلان عن طريق ملامسة الدم وسوائل الجسم الملوثة. هدفت هذه الدراسة إلى دراسة مدى انتشار وعوامل خطر الإصابة بالتهاب الكبد ب وس بين سكان منطقة الجاموسي ، ولاية الجزيرة وسط السودان. المنهجية: أجريت هذه الدراسة الوصفية في أربعة قرى تم اختيارها عن طريق القرعة، اختير 492 شخصا باستخدام تقنية العينة العشوائية البسيطة وتم فحص جميع الافراد للاتجين السطحي لالتهاب الكبد الفيروسي ب HBsAg والجسم المضادات لالتهاب الكبد الفيروسي سAnti-HCV باستخدام اختبارات التشخيص السريع المتاحة تجاريًا (RDTs) ثم تم تأكيدها بواسطة الإنزيم -مقايسة الممتز المناعي (ELISA). النتائج: اظهرت النتائج أن معدل انتشار التهاب الكبد ب بلغ (16.1٪) وفيروس التهاب الكبد س ( 1.0%)بينما وجد (0.2٪) إصابة مشتركة مع كلا الفيروسين. الأفراد الذين تتراوح أعمارهم بين 31-45 عاما لديهم أعلى معدل انتشار (20.6٪) لعدوى التهاب الكبد ب. وكان هنالك علاقة احصائية كبيرة بين التهاب الكبد الفيروسي ب HBV والفئات العمرية (قيمة مربع كاي =7.816 والقيمة الاحتمالية=0.05 ) من بين عوامل الخطر المحتملة ، كان لدى (2.7 ٪) دليل على التاريخ السابق لليرقان وابدو ايجابيتهم للاختبار المصلي للانتجين السطحي لالتهاب الكبد الفيروسي ب HBsAg .(قيمة مربع كاي = 11.771 والقيمة الاحتمالية =0.001 )(1.4 ٪) لديهم تاريخ سابق وابدو ايجابيتهم للاختبار المصلي للجسم المضاد لالتهاب الكبد الفيروسي س Anti-HCV (قيمة مربع كاي = 14.588 والقيمة الاحتمالية =0.000 ) أظهرت هذه الدراسة أيضًا أن هناك ارتباطًا معنويًا بين التهاب الكبد الفيروسي ب وس مع المعرفة نحو الانتقال والوقاية (قيمة P <0.005). الخلاصة: خلصت الدراسة أن معدل الإصابة للأفراد المصابين بالتهاب الكبد الوبائي ب أعلى ولكن بمعدلات متماثلة في كل مناطق الجاموسي. التهاب الكبد الفيروس س حدد فقط في ثلاثة مناطق. كما بلغ معدل انتشار التهاب الكبد الفيروسي (سي) والعدوى المصاحبة (1.0٪) و (0.2٪) على التوالي، واستكشفت هذه الدراسة العديد من الأسباب المحتملة المرتبطة بالتهاب الكبد الفيروسي ب و س. بناءً على النتائج أوصت الدراسة الى ضرورة قيام برنامج تدخل لفحص معظم سكان الجاموسي الذين لم يتم فحصهم لالتهاب الكبد الفيروسي ب وس ,التطعيم ضد التهاب الكبد الوبائي ب , العلاج المناسب للمصابين بالمرض ,يجب مراقبة الذين ابدو ايجابيتهم للاختبار للتقليل من المضاعفات , ويوصى بشدة ببرنامج التثقيف الصحي لخلق وتعزيز الوعي بين عامة السكان.
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    Assessment of Measles Surveillance System in the White Nile State, 2009 – 2012
    (University of Khartoum, ) Adam, Seifeldin Osman Khalil ; Abd Ebasit Elawad Mohmmed Ahmed
    Background: Worldwide measles remains the fifth leading cause of mortality among children age less than 5 years. Measles surveillance is one of the main strategies of measles elimination. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the White Nile State to assess measles surveillance system in the White Nile State for the period 2009- 2012. Methods: Stratifiedsimple random sample was used to select (97) out of (137) surveillance units from department of Epidemiology and Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Samples were determined according to WHO Protocol for the Assessment of Surveillance System. Data were collected using the WHO generic questionnaire, observation checklist, in-depth interview and record review. Data were analyzed using (SPSS) version 21. Results: Only at the State level and (66.6%) of the Localities in Department of EPI had capacity to confirm suspected cases of measles. Completeness of reporting system was (70%) in 2009, (87%) in 2010, (89%) in 2011, and (92%) in 2012, timeliness of reporting system was (72%) in 2009, (88%) in 2010, (87%) in 2011, and (97%) in 2012. Concerning data analysis , only (70.5%) of health facilities, (55.5%) of Localities as well as State level in the EPI Department had analyzed surveillance data. Resources such as: Offices, Computers, Transportation, Telephone and Electricity were found at the State level in both Departments, while other resources were limited in lower levels. Conclusion: A clear deficiency of technical support in laboratories’ equipment was found in the Department of Epidemiology. All levels of measles surveillance in Epidemiology Department did not analyzed collected data.Measles surveillance system in the White Nile State did not meet WHO–recommended standards for surveillance of selected vaccine-preventable diseases. There is an urgent need to provide resources that used for practice of measles surveillance system.
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    Assessment of the use of safety protective measures among spray workers In Khartoum State,
    (University of Khartoum, 2015-03-29) Eltuhami Ahmed Edris ; Ahmed Hussein Abdurrahman ; Epidemiology
    Exposure to pesticides is one work-related health risk, for as much as 14% of all occupational injuries in the agricultural sector and public health domain. The annual number of acute pesticide poisoning cases among agricultural workers is between 20,000 and 300,000 and the WHO places the total cases of pesticide poisoning at between 2 and 5 million each year of which 40,000 are fatal.
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    Epidemiology of malnutrition Among children under 5 years Admitted to Gaafer Ibn Oaff Pediatric Hospital, 2009
    (u, 2015-03-29) Adam, Alawia ; Dr. Abdelsafi Abbas Gabbad ; Epidemiology
    The term 'malnutrition' usually means the inappropriate intake of one or more of the nutrients essential for normal growth and development of the body. Malnutrition is a major health problem, especially in developing countries, among children. For example, in the Sudan, about 31% of the children under five years of age, were found to be moderately underweight, while 9.4% were severely underweight. This was mainly attributed to poverty and lower socio-economic status, which are some of the global causes of child mortality, and a major concern in developing countries like Sudan.
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    Assessment of Tetanus Toxoid coverage and Protection at Birth against Neonatal Tetanus in Khartoum State, Sudan, 2009
    (University of Khartoum, 2015-03-29) Awad, Hager ; Mansour Mohammad Mansour ; Epidemiology
    routine immunization of tetanus toxoid in Khartoum State is considered to be low ( the range was between 41.9-46.1% in the last seven years ). Protection at birth (PAB) coverage has never been assessed in Khartoum State. Design : a community-based descriptive cross-sectional study Setting : all administrative units in Khartoum state . Study population: mothers who have children under one year age.