The 5th Annual Conference - Agricultural and Veterinary Research - February 2014

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    Wood Density Radial Variation of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile Grown in Sudan
    (UOFK, 2014-02) Mohamed, Hanadi ; Thomas, Claus ; Ibrahim, Abdelnasir
    Wood density is a variable influencing many of the technological and quality properties of wood. Previous studies have shown that wood density is an important indicator for wood end-use as it strongly affects the general quality of most of the wood products. Understanding the radial variation pattern of wood density is important for its end use. The present study was carried out to determine the pattern of wood density radial variation of Balanites aegyptiaca tree species. Thirty healthy trees were chosen randomly from 10 forests distributed in four states in Sudan, namely, Blue Nile, North Kordofan, South Kordofan and White Nile. Two discs of 10 cm thickness were cut from each tree, the first at 10% from the merchantable height and the second at 90%. One strip (includes tree’s pith) was taken from each disc. The wood basic density was determined for five radial portions representing the distance from pith to bark (10%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 90%). The density was measured based on dry weight and green volume. ANOVA was used to test the variation among the five selected radial portions, using SPSS (version 18.0) program. The results revealed that Balanites aegyptiaca wood density follows the increased pattern from pith to bark. The results showed also significant differences among the five selected portions from pith to bark.
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    Variation in Seed and Germination Traits of Sclerocarya birrea subsp. birrea Populations
    (UOFK, 2014-02) Abdelkheir, Rehab ; Warrag, Essam
    The extent of variation in seed and germination traits of Sclerocarya birrea subsp. birrea was evaluated at the population level. Seeds were collected from five natural populations in Sudan (Rashad, Alfaid, Alkhwi, Aldamazin and Baw). Five replicates of 25 seeds per population were studied to assess variability in seed morphometric traits, germination index (seed vigor) and total germination percentage, using 100 water-soaked seeds per population sown in a completely randomized block design under controlled environmental condition. Significant (P≤0.05) differences among populations were obtained in seed and germination traits. The analyses revealed that some of the seed traits had significant correlations with the geographical variables of the populations. Among seed traits, significant (P≤0.05) correlations were found between seed length, seed weight and seed width. Germination percentage had no significant correlation with seed traits. With the exception of seed germination percentage, 95%-97% of the total variation in seed traits was attributed to population effect. Variations in seed and germination traits could be a reference point, when considering seed collection of this species for conservation and species restoration
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    Sustainable Community- based Management of Natural Forests in El Ain Area, North Kordofan State, Sudan
    (UOFK, 2014-02) Siddig, Faiza ; Sanjak, Elamin
    The broad objective of this research was to tackle the effect of policies on the management of natural resources to guarantee the sustainability of the resource use. The research hypothesis was that the forest resources in El Ain area could be managed through the participatory approach in such a way that it is environmentally sound, sustainable and socially acceptable and fulfills the objectives of rural development. This study uses both primary and secondary data. The source of the secondary data used included El Ain natural forest management projects' documents and consultancies. The primary data were collected using key informants' interview, farmer's interview, foresters' questionnaire, natural regeneration assessment and participatory rapid appraisal. The statistical analysis was commenced through exploratory manipulations of the data. This process was accomplished by critically examining the data through the use of simple techniques of analysis. The main tools were construction of simple tables, graphs and selected cross-tabulations. The results showed that there were some factors that affected community–based natural forests management. The main ones were the local physical conditions, the socio-economics, the roles and responsibilities of the institutes for integrated management of forest resources and identification of social, cultural and gender issues.
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    Some Aspects of Climate Changes and Impacts on Human Livelihoods
    (UOFK, 2014-02) Abdalla, Elnour
    There is consensus among scientists and development professionals that the climate is changing as a result of human induced activities associated with land use and fossil fuel consumption. The human activities resulted in increasing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs). Taking the year 1850 as a baseline year, the emissions of CO2 gradually increased reaching a level of alarming concentration particularly during the last seventeen decades than its state over 750 years before year 1850. Carbon dioxide concentration was stable within 180– 280 ppm over long periods up to early 1900s, but its stability within these limits was disturbed leading to a progressive increase up to 450 ppm at present. Increasing temperature and declining annual rainfall amount are strongly associated with CO2 increase. The resulting impacts are clearly observed in natural resources degradation which in turn affects human livelihood and well being. The negative impact of the changing climate on human life is reflected in scarcity of water resources, loss of agricultural land, decline in agricultural productivity, decrease in forests and plant cover and losses in livestock resources. Conflicts are becoming obvious results, causing human displacement and loss of lives. The objective of the present paper is to review those issues of climate changes and their impacts on human resources and livelihoods. Some examples of responses and measures taken towards mitigation of these threatening aspects are highlighted. Conclusions and recommendations are presented in order to be adopted by decision makers and land use practitioners at national and State levels in Sudan.
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    Rooting Patterns and the Effect of Sesbania species on Soil Moisture Content
    (UOFK, 2014-02) Abdalla, Niemat ; Elnour, Mohamed ; Amir, Khalid
    This study was conducted at ICRAF field station in Machakos, Kenya. It was designed to examine the effect of three Sesbania species on soil moisture content and to test their rooting patterns. For each of the Sesbania species, free growth (roots and shade present), guy-wiring (shade removed) and root barrier (roots removed) treatments were used. The Sesbania species, with these treatments, were intercropped with maize. Sole maize was used as control. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with ten treatments and three replications. In each plot, a single row of Sesbania was planted at 0.5 within-row spacing. Six maize rows were planted at 0.3m within-row spacing and 0.75 m between-row spacing. Soil moisture content was monitored in Sesbania sesban and sole maize treatments. The root length density was studied in guywiring treatments of S. sesban and S. macrantha. The number of roots in the profile wall was studied in the free growth treatment of the three species. The results indicated that soil moisture content was lower in rows near trees compared with those far from trees. The study of the root system indicated that Sesbania sesban has higher root length density than S. macrantha. It is concluded that roots of the studied species can compete with agricultural crops for moisture and nutrients.