Department of Anatomy

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    Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Moringa Oleifera Leaves Powder on Intestinal Morphology and Performance of Broiler Chicks
    (University of Khartoum, 2020) Eglal Abdelkarim Mohamed Babiker
    Abstract: The main object of the study was to investigate the morphological changes in the small intestine of broiler chicks in response to dietary supplementation of Moringa oleifera leaves powder and to detect the most appropriate level of Moringa oleifera as food additive. Moringa oleifera leaves powder provided from Sudan Atomic Energy Commission. Ninety-six unsexed day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were used in this study. The duration of the experiment was six weeks. Birds were randomly assigned into four equal dietary groups (A, B, C, D) in a complete randomized design and each group comprised 24 chicks. Each group was divided into 4 replicates of 6 birds. These groups were: group A (control), received the basal diet (isonitrogenous and isocaloric) without Moringa oleifera ; the other three groups ( B, C and D) received the basal diet including 1%, 3% and 5% Moringa olifera leaves powder at inclusion rate of 10kg, 30kg, 50kg / ton, respectively. The growth performance data including body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded weekly. At the end of the experiment (at day 42), a total of 48 chicks (12 chicks / group) were selected randomly and the weight and relative weight of small intestine and intestinal length were measured. Then, tissue samples from the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were collected and processed for histology, histometry and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental data was statistically analyzed using SPSS, one way ANOVA test. SEM observations showed that feeding Moringa leaves enhanced the morphology of the intestinal villi regarding their shape, length, density and arrangement; the villi had a plate or tongue-like shape in the duodenum, a plate-like shape with a zigzag pattern of arrangement in the jejunum and a dense, broad plate-like shaped villi in the in the ileum. The intestinal villi in all Moringa-fed groups were characterized by rough surfaces due to the presence of numerous horizontal furrows. Light microscopic observations showed villus anastomosing which was more prominent in the jejunum of group B, and branched and clumped villi in the duodenum of all Moringa-fed groups. Histometrical data showed that, the highest villus length (P ≤ 0.05) was noticed in the duodenum of group B, whereas the greatest villus width (P ≤ 0.001) in the ileum of group D. A significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in the number of villi per intestinal section was observed in the ileum of groups C and D. Villus height to crypt depth ratio increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in all segments of the small intestine of all Moringa-fed groups as compared to control group; with highest increase (P ≤0.001) in the ileum of group D. In all Moringa-fed groups, the number of mitotic cells per intestinal crypt showed a significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in both duodenum and ileum as compared to the control group. The number of duodenal goblet cells increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in all Moringa-fed groups as compared to control group. The lamina propria thickness was highly significantly (P ≤ 0.001) increased in the duodenum of group D, whereas, the thickness of the tunica muscularis was increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in the ileum of D group as compared to A group. The biometric study showed that feeding Moringa significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased the broiler intestinal weight, intestinal relative weight, and intestinal length; the most prominent effect was observed in the ileum length. Significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases were recorded in BWG and FI and FCR in all Moringa-fed groups compared to the control. The study conducted that, the dietary supplementation of 5% Moringa olifera, significantly improved the morphology of the broiler small intestine, particularly the ileum, hence enhancing the feed absorption and feed conversion ratio and consequently increased the final body weight. Addition of Moringa oleifera leaves powder in broiler diet at 5% inclusion level is recommended to improve chick’s performance having positive economic impact. المستخلص :هذه الدراسة لبحث التغيرات الشكلية للأمعاء الدقيقة للدجاج اللاحم عند إستخدام مسحوق أوراق المورينقا كمضاف علفي، ولتحديد التركيز الأمثل للمورينقا في العليقة. تم توفير أوراق المورينقا من الهيئة السودانية للطاقة الذرية.أُستخدم في هذه الدراسة ست وتسعون (96) كتكوت لاحم من فصيلة (308Ross ) غير مجنس وعمر يوم واحد. ﺇستمرت التجربة لمدة ست اسابيع. قُسمت الكتاكيت عشوائيا الي 4 مجموعات { أ، ب، ج، د}، حوت كل مجموعة 24 كتكوت. قُسمت كل مجموعة الي 4 وحدات تجريبية ( مكررات ) بكل منها 6 كتاكيت. شملت هذه المجموعات كل من: المجموعة (أ) الشاهد ، والتي غذيت بالعليقة الأساسية متساوية البروتين والطاقة دون ﺇضافة المورينقا، المجموعات الثلاث الأُخري { ب، ج، د } تمت تغذيتها بالعليقة الأساسية مضافا اليها مسحوق أوراق المورينقا بتراكيز 1%، 3%، 5% بمعدلات 10 كجم، 30 كجم و 50 كجم لكل طن علف، علي التوالي. سجلت بيانات معدلات النمو اسبوعيا والتي تشمل كمية العلف المُستهلك ، وزن الجسم المُكتسب ومعدل التحويل الغذائي لكل مجموعة. بنهاية التجربة (اليوم 42) تم ﺇختيار 48 كتكوت عشوائيا ( 12 كتكوت من كل مجموعة). تم قياس وزن الأمعاء، الوزن النسبي للأمعاء ، وطول الأمعاء لكل مجموعة. تم جمع العينات النسيجية من العفج، الصائم واللفائفي ومن ثم تجهيزها بغرض دراسة الأنسجة، وقياسات النسيج والمجهر اللإلكتروني الماسح. تم تحليل بيانات التجربة إحصائيا باستخدام ﺇختبار التباين الإحصائي الأُحادي (SPSS, ANOVA). ظهرت نتائج المجهر الالكتروني الماسح أن التغذية بالمورينقا اًدت الي تحسين كل من شكل ، طول وتراص الخملات ( الزغابات) المعوية. شوهدت زغابات صفيحية و لسانية الشكل في منطقة العفج، زغابات صفيحية متراصة في شكل متعرج في منطقة الصائم وزغابات كثيفة ذات شكل صفيحي عريض في اللفائفي. كما تميزت الزغابات المعوية في كل المجموعات التي غذيت بالمورينقا بالأسطح الخشنة وذلك نسبة لوجود العديد من الأخاديد المستعرضة. أظهرت نتائج المجهر الضوئي تفاغراً بين الزغابات المعوية أكثر تواجداً في منطقة الصائم في المجموعة التي غذيت بالمورينقا بتركيز 1%. تم رصد العديد من الزغابات المتفرعة والمندمجة مع بعضها في منطقة العفج في كل المجموعات التي غذيت بالمورينقا. أظهرت بيانات القياسات النسيجية ان أعلي طول للزغابات ( P ≤ 0.05) شوهد في منطقة العفج في المجموعة ب بينما لوحظ ان هناك زيادة عالية المعنوية في عرض الزغابات ( 06P ≤ 0.0) في منطقة اللفائفي في المجموعة د. وجد ان هناك زيادة ( P ≤ 0.05) في عدد الزغابات المعوية في اللفائفي في المجموعات ج و د مقارنة بالشاهد أ. أظهرت كل المجموعات التي غذيت بالمورينقا زيادة معنوية ( P ≤ 0.05) في معدل طول الزغابات بالنسبة لعمق السراديب المعوية في جميع أجزاء المعي الدقيق ، مع زيادة عالية المعنوية (01P ≤ 0.0 ) في اللفائفي للمجموعة د. وجد أن هناك زيادة معنوية ( P ≤ 0.05) في عدد الخلايا الكأسية الموجودة في العفج وفي معدل نشاط الخلايا الإنقسامية في كل من العفج واللفائفي في كل المجموعات التي غذيت بالمورينقا مقارنة مع الشاهد. سجلت المجموعة (د) زيادة معنوية عالية ( P ≤ 0.001) في سمك الصفيحة الأساسية للعفج مقارنة ببقية المجموعات ، وزيادة معنوية ( P ≤ 0.05) في سمك طبقة العضلات في اللفائفي مقارنة بالشاهد. أظهرت القياسات الحيوية ان التغذية بالمورينقا أدت الي زيادة معنوية ( P ≤ 0.05) في الوزن النسبي للامعاء وطول الأمعاء خاصة في منطقة اللفائفي. سجلت المجموعات التي غذيت بالمورينقا زيادة معنوية ( P ≤ 0.05) في وزن الجسم المكتسب، معدل إستهلاك الغذاء ومعدل التحويل الغذائي. خلُصت الدراسة الي أن إضافة المورينقا بتركيز 5% لعليقة الدجاج اللاحم أدت الي تحسين معنوي في الشكل الظاهري للمعي الدقيق وبالأخص في منطقة اللفائفي، وبالتالي الي تحسين معنوي في كل من معدل إمتصاص الغذاء ومعدل التحويل الغذائي ومن ثم إزدياد في الوزن النهائي للجسم. عليه توصي الدراسة بإستخدام مسحوق أوراق المورينقا كمضاف علفي بنسبة 5% وذلك لتحسين مؤشرات النمو العامة للدجاج اللاحم وتحسين المردود الإقتصادي في صناعة الدواجن.
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    Altered Studls on Altsrd thyroid Function in Nubian Goats
    (University of Khartoum, ) Ibrahim, Rafie Eltaneb
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    Antibiotics Residues in Cow Milk Marketedin Wad Madni, and neighboring villages ,Al Gezira state –Sudan
    (University of Khartoum, ) Ibrahim, Mahguob Zian Alaabden Mohmmed ; Khair Elsid Ali Abdalla ; Preventive Medicine and Veterinary Public Health
    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of antimicrobial residues in milk samples in Wad Medani, Gezira State, Sudan. A structured questionnaire survey was carried out to collect data about the risk factors associated with the presence of antimicrobial residues in raw and boiled milk. Questions were closed and data was obtained through direct interviews with veterinarians and farm owners. In addition to that, 94 milk samples were collected from dairy farms and sale points (47 milk samples each), using randomly sampling method. Screening of milk samples for tetracyclines, sulphonamides and beta-lactams.was performed by Trisensor. Data was analyzed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 20, 2011). Chi-square test used to assess variance between two groups. The results showed that 20% of the veterinarians explain that prescriptions are not necessary for drugs dispensing but the difference was not significant between Wad Medani and neighbor villages and 16.7% practice whole sale antibiotics to the farm owners. Moreover, 76.7% stated that most of the saleable drugs are broad spectrum antibiotics. However, only 50% of the veterinarians advice the owners about the importance of the withdrawal period, most sale for antibiotics was tetracycline (43.3%),Sulphonamides(36.7%) and beta-lactam (30%) respectively. The results revealed that 33.3% of the responded dairy farm owners add antimicrobials to animal feed, which showed a high significant level (p<0.001), differences between neighbor villages and Wad Medani. Also, 50% of dairy farmers administered antimicrobials to healthy animals for prophylactic purposes. Only 33.3% of the responding dairy farms owners consults the veterinarians, 73.3% have drugs in the cattle yard which they administer to the animal themselves, 73.3% don’t care about the withdrawal period and all dairy farm owners don’t have balance to measure animal weight for suitable drug dosage. Among the collected samples, tetracycline residues were 8.5% in raw milk similar to the boiled milk(χ²=0.001, P>0.100). The sulphonamides were detected in 17.1% in the raw milk and 19.2% of the boiled samples (χ²=0.184, P>0.05). The beta-lactam were the most prevalent antibiotics residue and was higher in boiled milk (41.5%) compared with the raw milk (9.5%) (χ²=38.315, P<0.001). This study concluded that 34.8% from all samples contain tetracycline, sulphonamides and beta-lactam residues. Antibiotics residues in the milk might constitute threat a public healthrisk because it lead to antibiotic resistance in human and animals. Application of antimicrobials by unauthorized persons leads to the high levels of residues in milk. Herethis study recommended activation of official control of veterinary drugs, supervision of authorized persons to the dairy farms and to increase awareness for consumers about the risk of antibiotics residues in milk.
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    Analytical Review of Veterinary Extension Delivery Services in Khartoum State, Sudan
    (University of Khartoum, ) Mustafa, Khansa Mohamed Abdalrahem ; Khitma Hassan Elmalik
    This study was planned to analyse and assess the technical backup facilities and to analyse data of adequacy of veterinary extension services to animal owners.Khartoum Statewas selected purposely due to the presence of Federal Ministry of Animal Resources, Fisheries and Rangeland (FMAFR) and State Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Wealth and Irrigation (SMAAI) that are supposed to provide extension services to the farmers. Primary data were collected through interviews and questionnaires while secondary data were collected from annual reports of FMAFR and SMAAI during the years from 2011 to 2015. Five directors, 25 extensionists and 15 technical workers were interviewed in the Directorates of Extension. About 135 animal owners also filled questionnaires. The data were analysed using SPSS program. The results showed that the respondents of 135 animal owners were composed of 28% illiterate; with the highest (14.8%) illiteracy in Khartoum North. A high proportion (72%) had a degree of education. Those who received veterinary extension services were 50.4% of the respondents. The respondents who keep their animals in farms comprised 67.4% and in household (backyard) 20%. The extension messages in the annual reports of FMAFR and SMAAI poorly addressed zoonosis. Approximately, half (49.6%) of the respondents did not receive any extension services. A considerable proportion (42.7%) of those who had services recevied extension from sources other than extensionists. In addition, 35.3% of the respondents didn’t see the extensionists in their location. The 180 respondents assessed the elements of communication process (source, message, channel, and receiver), the technical equipment, the administration budget, evaluation of the administration staff and the constraints of the extension work. Forty percent of the extensionists reported that the main constraints facing the extension work were low and irregular budget from Ministry of Finance while 16% reported the lack of extension role in ministry projects and 12% reported that weak coordination between ministries and targeted communities. The assessment revealed that the administration efforts to deliver extension messages were not enough due to inadequate number of human resources according to 56% of the respondents. No extension records are available before the year 2011 in the two ministries. Moreover, even after this year follow up, Monitoring and Evaluation system and measuring the effect and impact of the extension messages in the annual reports of the two ministries were not found. It was concluded that the role of veterinary extension services is lacking in the field. It is evident that coordination among FMAFR and SMAAI and the targeted communities was not adequate. It is recommended that further detailed studies be carried out to determine the needs to improve the veterinary extension delivery services in Khartoum State and in other states. The extension services are, also, to be revitalized to cope with the requirements of livestock production and productivity improvement.
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    Altered Studls on Altsrd thyroid Function in Nubian Goats
    (University of Khartoum, ) Ibrahim, Rafie eltayab ; .