Department of Food Hygiene and Safety

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    Microbial Contaminants in Commercial Poultry Feeds in Khartoum State, Sudan.
    ( 2021) Nusiba Hassan Ali Mohammed.
    Introduction: Poultry make crucial contributions to the word‘s food, wellbeing and prosperity. Poultry are one of the most important sources of protein that play an appreciable role in solving human food problem. Poultry can quickly spoil or cause food borne diseases; this is attributed to the microbial infections and contamination obtained from feeds. This study was conducted at University of Khartoum, Faculty of public and Environmental Health, Department of Food Hygiene and Safety. Objective of the study was to determine the load of microbes contaminating poultry feeds in factories at Khartoum State, Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional laboratory-based study, where 50 samples were collected randomly and statistically from 4 poultry feed factories. Samples were investigated microbiologically to determine the Total Viable Count (TVC) of bacteria; and identification (using IMViC tests); isolation and identification of yeast and moulds (using phonotypical characteristics). Results: The results showed that the (TVC) of bacteria isolates of poultry feed between 1X102 cfu/cm2 and 5X105 cfu/cm2. Eighty-two (100%) bacterial isolates were identified to be Bacillus spp. Eighty-six different fungal strains were isolated from 47 feed samples. 75 (87.2%) were Aspergillus spp 11 (12.8%) were yeast. Out of all the Aspergillus spp isolates, 27 were (Aspergillus niger (31.4%), Aspergillus fumigates 27 (31.4%) and the rest 21 (24.4%) were Aspergillusterreus. all are known to be mycotoxin producers which can cause health hazards to humans and Poultry), 11 (12.8%) were yeast. Conclusion: The study confirmed the high bacterial and fungal contamination of poultry feed at factories which constitute a public health hazard. VI The study recommends the necessity for the application of the standard measures – as Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points ( HACCP) for production of feeds and the urgent need for strong amendments for the health legislations and regular monitoring by health authorities.
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    The Determination of Bacterial Load in White Cheese in Khartoum Locality,Sudan
    (University of Khartoum, 2017) Raheeg Mohammed SirajAldeen Abass
    Abstract Background: Cheese is known as a complete nutritious food product and excellent source of many key nutrients, suitable for many ages. Cheese production must be protected from pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, as well as from decaying both on the sites of production and consumption. Microorganisms present in dairy products (fermented milk, cheese) belong to three groups; those responsible for transmission of food borne diseases; others that may cause defects in dairy products and the ones that produce desirable flavor and physical characteristics. Unless milk used for cheese processing is pasteurized or otherwise treated to destroy pathogens, pathogenic or toxin producing organisms present in raw milk could be found in cheese. These organisms may find their way into cheese as a result of environmental contamination during processing and packaging. The objectives of the study were to determine the bacterial quality and to investigate the occurrence of Listeria spp. in Sudanese white cheese in Khartoum Locality, Sudan. Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional study. A total coverage of Sudanese white cheese was statistically collected from a total of 50 samples from market at Alamarat area, during January to March 2016. Samples were examined bacteriological for their load by Total Viable Count and Listeria spp. using the biochemical tests in the laboratory of the Department of Food Hygiene and Safety- Faculty of Public and Environmental Health- University of Khartoum. Results: The number of microorganisms which were present in one gram of Sudanese white cheese approximately ranged between 1×105 to 2.9×107colony forming unit/g. Listeria spp isolated from Sudanese white cheese samples were four (8%). The species were identified as Listeria ivanovii 2 (4%) and Listeria murrayi 2(4%). Conclusion: Sudanese white cheese was highly bacterially contaminated and contained Listeria spp. Therefore more attention is required to apply intensive hygienic measures to warranty consumer safety.
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    Assessment of the Nutritional Status of Less than Five Years at Zalingei Internal Displaced Population Camp -Central Darfur – Sudan - 2017
    (University of Khartoum, 2018) Salma Adam Fadalla Husain
    Abstract: Background: Malnutrition among children is a major health problem, especially in developing countries. It is a major contributing cause of death in refugees and internally displaced populations. Darfur crisis has affected thousands of inhabitants. Zaingei Internally Displaced Populations Camp is one of the camps for affected people. The objectives of this study were to assess the nutritional status of less than five years children at Zalingei Internally Displaced Population Camp -Central Darfur – Sudan - 2017, and to identify possible factors influencing the nutritional status of children less than five years. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional community based study using stratified cluster sampling. The Camp was divided into 25 sectors and 968 household selected by simple random sampling, to induct children less than five years at Zalingei camp, (n=384 children). Data were collected from mothers of children and interviews with community leaders and National Governmental Organizations. Primary data were collected using a questionnaire designed for this purpose, which was distributed to mothers of selected children to obtain information on their nutritional status, as well as taking the anthropometric measurements required (weight for age and weight for height). The data was analyzed by a computer using (SPSS) program and Chi-square test with P-value <0.05 as signals. Results: Malnutrition was 31% and 59% of the malnourished were underweight, 18% were kwashiorkor, 14% were marasmus and 9% were marasmus-kwashiorkor. Males were more affected (51%) with significant difference between gender (P value=0.040). Malnutrition was more among children in the age group less than 2 years (91%) and in the 4 -5 years groups was (2%), and was 83% among families of 7-9 members. Age and family size were found to correlate with malnutrition (P=0.014) and (P=0.000) respectively. Malnutrition increased among children who were not completed breast feeding (80%), sudden termination of weaning (61%) (PV=0.000). Malnutrition was 84% among partially immunized children compared to 16% among fully immunized. (63%) of children of mothers lacking knowledge about malnutrition were malnourished Malnutrition among those affected by a concomitant disease like diarrhea (69%), malaria (24%), measles (4%) and tuberculosis (3%) (PV =0.000). Conclusion: About one third of the less than five years children at Zalingei camp were found to be malnourished, due to improper food habits and poor personal hygiene, the study were recommended to control malnutrition among children, early diagnosis and treatment, community awareness, complete immunization schedule and complementary feeding . المستخلص الخلفية: سوء التغذية وسط الاطفال مشكلة صحية رئيسة خاصة فى الدول النامية يمثل سوء التغذية بين الأطفال مشكلة صحية كبيرة ، لا سيما في البلدان النامية. وهو سبب رئيسي في الوفاة بين اللاجئين والمشردين داخليًا. لقد أثرت أزمة دارفور على الآلاف من السكان. يعد معسكر زالنجي للنازحين داخليا واحداً من المعسكرات للأشخاص المتضررين. هدفت هذه الدراسة إلى تقييم الحالة التغذوية للأطفال الأقل من خمس سنوات في مخيم زالنجي الداخلي للسكان - دارفور- السودان -2017م و تحديد العوامل التى تؤثر على الحالة التغذوية للأطفال اقل من خمس سنوات. الطريقة : كانت الدراسة عبارة عن دراسة وصفية مقطعية مستندة إلى المجتمع . أخذت العينة العنقودية الطبقية. تم تقسيم مخيم زالنجي للسكان النازحين داخليًا إلى 25 قطاعًا و 968 أسرة ، وتم اختيارهم عن طريق أخذ عينات عشوائية بسيطة، وتغطية الأطفال الذين تقل أعمارهم عن خمس سنوات في معسكر زالنجي ، (ن = 384 طفل). تم جمع البيانات من امهات الاطفال ومقابلة مع قادة المجتمع والمنظمات غير الحكومية. تم جمع البيانات الأولية باستخدام استبيان صمم لهذا الغرض توزع على أمهات الأطفال المختارين للحصول على معلومات عن حالتهن التغذوية، وكذلك أخذ القياسات الأنثروبومترية المطلوبة (الوزن للعمر والوزن للارتفاع. تم تحليل البيانات بواسطة جهاز كمبيوتر بواسطة برنامج التحليل الإحصائي و الحزمة الإحصائية للدراسات الإجتماعية لتحديد العلاقات المختلفة بين المتغيرات المختلفة التى شملتها الدراسة. النتائج : توصلت الدراسة الى أن الاصابة بسوء التغذية بلغ 31% منهم 59% حالات نقصان الوزن 18% حالات كواشيوكور;14%مراسمس: إضافة إلى9% مراسمس كواشيوركور. الاصابة أكبر فى الذكور و بلغت 51%. وجد أن النوع له علاقة معنوية بسؤ التغذية ( 0.040 = P). وجد أن سوء التغذية أكبر فى الفئة العمرية اقل من سنتين (91%) و وسط الفئة 4-5 سنوات كانت الأقل (2%). أوجدت الدراسة أن سوء التغذية بلغ 83% فى أطفال الأسر التى عدد أفرادها 7- 9. الفئة العمرية و حجم الأسرة و جد أن لهما علاقة بسوء التغذية (0.000=P و 0.040=P) على التوالى. سوء التغذية منتشر وسط الاطفال الذين لم يكملو الرضاعة الطبيعية (80%), الإنهاء المفاجئ للفطام (61%) , بلغ معدل سوء التغذية وسط الذين تلقوا تطعيمآ جزئيآ 84% مقارنة مع فقط 16% وسط الذين تلقوا تطعيمآ كاملآ. أطفال الأمهات اللاتى لايعرفن سوء التغذية بلغ فيهم معدّل سوء التغذية 63% ،هناك أمراض تزامنت مع حالات سوء التغذية، فوسط المصابين بالإسهال بلغ سوء التغذية 69%, 24% وسط المصابين بالملاريا، 4% بالحصبة و 3% وسط المصابين بالسل 0.000= P . الخلاصة: حوالى ثلث الأطفال اقل من خمس سنوات فى معسكر زالنجي للنازحين مصابون بسوء التغذية وذلك بسبب العادات الغذائية غير السليمة وسوء الصحة الشخصية , اوصت الدراسة بمكافحة سوء التغذية بين الأطفال والتشخيص والعلاج المبكرين ورفع وعي المجتمع المحلي واكتمال جدول التمنيع والتغذية التكميلية .
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    Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Surfaces Used in Food Preparation in Restaurants,Khartoum State
    (University of Khartoum, 2018) Sara Eltayeb Alabas Dafaallah
    Abstract Background: Food preparation surfaces are the first material that contact the food, must be free of pathogenic bacteria and should be made from material easy to clean. The aim of this study is to isolate and identify pathogenic bacteria from surfaces used for food preparation in restaurants. Methodology: This a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Khartoum state during January 2018. Four types of surfaces were used for food preparation Include: plastic, wood, marble and stainless steel. One hundred forty-one swabs samples from forty-seven different types of restaurants three swabs for each restaurant were taken, Samples were collected by swabbing from surfaces for food preparation in restaurants after the daily cleaning process by the workers. Bacterial identification was done using selective media and biochemical methods in laboratory of Department of Food Hygiene and Safety: Faculty of Public and Environmental Health, University of Khartoum. Results: Staphylococcus aureus was isolated and identified from all surfaces marble, wood, plastic and stainless steel, Bacillus cereus, E. coli and Salmonella spp were isolated from two types of surfaces plastic and wood, Klebsiella spp was isolated from wood surface, Shigella spp was isolated from plastic surface. Conclusion: All samples collected from food preparation surfaces were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. Surfaces made of wood and plastic are unhealthy for preparing food compared to surfaces made of stainless steel and marble. The study recommends to prohibiting the use of plastic and wood surfaces to preparing food in restaurants. المستخلص الخلفية: اسطح تحضير الغذاء هي المواد الاولى التي تلامس الغذاء والتي يجب ان تكون خالية من البكتريا الممرضة وا ن تكون مصنوعه من مواد سهلة التنظيف. الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو عزل البكتريا المسببة للامرض من الاسطح المستخدمة في تحضير الاغذية في المطاعم. الطريقة: هذه دراسة وصفية مقطعية اجريت في ولاية الخرطوم خلال يناير2018 لعزل وتحديد البكتريا الممرضه في الاسطح المستخدمة في تحضيرالاغذية. اربعة انواع من الاسطح المستخدمة في تحضير الاغذية تشمل: الفولاذ المقاوم للصدأ ، الرخام، الخشب، والبلاستيك. تم اخذ مائة وواحد واربعون عينة من سبعة واربعون مطعم بموجب ثلاثة مسحات من كل مطعم. العينات تم جمعها بالمسح من اسطح تحضير الاغذية في المطاعم بعد عملية التنظيف اليومية من قبل العمال. تم التعرف على البكتريا باستخدام طرق العزل والتعريف بمعمل قسم صحة وسلامة الغذاء ، بكلية الصحة العامة وصحة البيئة، جامعة الخرطوم. النتائج: المكورات العنقودية الذهبية عزلت من جميع انواع الاسطح الرخام، الخشب، البلاستيك ، والفولاذ المقاوم للصدأ بنسبة مائة بالمائة، الباسلس سيرس عزلت من نوعين من الاسطح البلاستيك والخشب بنسبة مائة بالمائة,الاشريشيا كولاي عزلت من سطح الخشب بنسبة خمسة وسبعون بالمائة ومن سطح البلاستيك بنسبة خمسة وعشرون بالمائة, السالمونيلا عزلت من سطح الخشب بنسبة خمسة وسبعون بالمائة ومن سطح البلاستيك بنسبة خمسون بالمائة ، الكليبسيلا عزلت من سطح الخشب بنسبة خمسة وعشرون بالمائة عزلت من سطح البلاستيك بنسبة خمسة وعشرون بالمائة. الخلاصة: كل جميع العينات التي تم جمعها من أسطح تحضير الطعام ملوثة ببكتيريا ممرضة. الأسطح المصنوعة من الخشب والبلاستيك غير صحية لتحضير الطعام مقارنة بالأسطح المصنوعة من الفولاذ المقاوم للصدأ والرخام. توصي الدراسة بمنع استخدام الأسطح البلاستيكية والخشبية في تحضير الطعام في المطاعم.