Department of Reproduction and Obstetrics

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    The Effect of Administration Of Oxytetracycline During Early or Late Pregnancy on Progesterone Concentration and Gestation Period in Cross-bred Dairy Cows
    (University of Khartoum, ) Mohammed, Maha Awad Abdelwahab ; Faisal Omer Ahmed Elzubair ; Department of Reproduction and Obstetrics
    The study was performed to assess the effect of injection of aqueous oxytetracycline (OTC), 5% or 20% during early or late pregnancy (10 cows each) on progesterone (P4) concentration and gestation period (GP). Forty (40) multiparous (3 - 4) cross-bred cows aged 3 – 8 years were used in this study (20 treated and 20 control). The pregnant treated cows were followed up until parturition. Also a questionnaire was designed to fifty clinician respondents regarding breed of cattle, concentration of OTC, nature of OTC, route of administration, dose, and treatment of sick pregnant cows, treatment of apparently healthy pregnant cows and induction of abortion. The results showed that 100% of veterinarians injected OTC 5% or 20% in different breeds of cattle. Eight percent (8%) used 5% OTC and 4% used 20% OTC during pregnancy in dairy cattle and 68% used both concentrations. All of the veterinarians mentioned that they injected aqueous OTC (Alamycine, Norbrook, UK), 5% or 20% for treatment of sick cows and they injected the OTC 5% or 20% intramuscularly (I.M).22% injected the optimum dose of OTC (10 mg/kg) for four consecutive days in the pregnant cows and 78% used (20 mg/kg) and 82% of t injected OTC 5% or 20% for treatment of bacterial diseases in pregnant cows and the others (18%) injected OTC for treatment of viral and protozoan diseases in pregnant dairy cows. The vast majority (92%) of veterinarians did not inject OTC 5% and 20% for apparently healthy pregnant cows. Thirty eight (38%) of veterinarians indicated that injection of OTC 5% induces abortion in dairy cows, however, 62% did not ascertain this. Fifty two (52%) of veterinarians responded that injection of OTC 20% induces abortion in dairy cows, however, 48% had negative response. Three blood samples were collected from all pregnant cows (20 cows) after injection of OTC at 7 days intervals and assayed for progesterone (P4) concentration. The P4 concentration was insignificantly different compared to the control cows when OTC 5% was injected during early pregnancy. The mean value of P4 concentration of the cows treated with OTC 5% and the control (4.75 ng/ml and 4.72 ng/ml respectively). The P4 concentration was insignificantly different compared to the control cows when OTC 5% was injected during late pregnancy. The mean values of P4 concentration for the cows injected with 5% OTC during late pregnancy and the control were (12.12ng/ml and 11.99ng/ml), respectively. The P4 concentration was insignificantly different for the cows injected with OTC 20% during early pregnancy compared to the control. The mean values of P4 concentration of the cows injected with 20% OTC during early pregnancy and the control were (4.80 n g /ml and 4.72 ng/ml), respectively. The P4 concentration of the cows injected with OTC 20% during late pregnancy was insignificantly different compared to the control. The mean values of P4 for cows injected with OTC 20% and control cows are (12, 01 ng/ml and 11.99 ng/ml), respectively. The gestation period (GP) of cows injected with OTC 5% during early pregnancy (274.6 days) was not significantly different compared to the control (276, 6 days). The GP of the cows injected with OTC 5% during late pregnancy (276, 8 days) was not significantly different compared to the control (276, 6 days). The GP of the cows injected with OTC 20% during early pregnancy (275, 0 days) was not significantly different compared to the control (276, 6 days). The GP of cows injected with OTC 20% during late pregnancy (275, 4 days) was not significantly different compared to the control (276, 6 days). In conclusion, administration of aqueous short or long acting OTC during early or late stages of pregnancy in dairy cows is safe and does not influence gestation period.
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    Artificial Insemination in Sudanese Sheep Using Different Methods of Oestrus Synchronization
    (UOFK, 2015-06-24) Manahil Zakaria Ahmed Mirghani, Mirghani ; Sharaf El Din Abdalla Makawi
    This study was carried out to evaluate efficacy of prostaglandin F2a (luprostiol) and intravaginal progestagen sponges (Fluorogestone acetate -FGA) with or without pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) to induce and synchronize oestrus in three Sudanese sheep types, Hamari, Watish and crossbred (Hamari x Watish). Effects of these treatments on different reproductive parameters (response to different hormonal treatments, time interval from end of treatment to onset of oestrus, oestrus signs, duration of oestrus and pregnancy rate were examined. A fixed time artificial insemination program using fresh semen diluted with whole milk was employed. Forty ewes (average 2.0 ± 0.8 years of age and 39.0 ± 3.0 Kg body weight) were selected from a flock of 80 females of mixed types. The animals were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups (l0 ewes per treatment). In treatment A, oestrus was synchronized with a double injection of luprostiol (3.75 mg) 14 days apart; while in treatment B, progestagen intravaginal sponges (40 mg FGA) were used for a period of 13 days. Treatment C was similar to treatment B plus an intramuscular injection of PMSG (500 IU) at the time of the sponge withdrawal. The ewes in treatment D were allowed to cycle naturally (control group). The reproductive performance was monitored using a vasectomized ram with excellent libido. All the ewes were artificially inseminated with fresh semen diluted with whole milk 52 hours after the end of treatments. Those which returned to the oestrus were artificially reinseminated. Three Sudanese rams (two Hamari and one Watish) of proven fertility were used as semen donors. The animals were diagnosed to be pregnant depending on non-return rate and abdominal palpation on days 90-110 post-insemination. The results indicated that all the employed treatments could induce and synchronize oestrus in Sudanese ewes. However, the oestrus behaviour expressions were significantly (P < 0.05) high when luprostiol was employed. In treatments A, B and C, 80%, 44.4% and 55.5% of the ewes were synchronized by showing behavioural oestrus within 54.0 ± 5.2 hr., 53.5 ± 6.4 hr. and 49.4 ± 1.9 hr., respectively. Duration of the induced oestrus period was significantly (P < 0.05) longer in treatment A (43.4 ± 5.5 hr.) compared with treatments B (27.3 ± 2.8 hr.) and C (27.2 ± 3.0 hr.) whereas no significant (P > 0.05) differences in the manifestation of oestrus signs were observed among the three hormonal treatments. The pregnancy rate to first insemination was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in treatment C (100%) compared with treatments A (40%), B (77.8%) and D (40%). However, the overall pregnancy rate was not significantly (P > 0.05) different between treatments B (100%) and C (100%). There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in lambing percentage and twinning rate among the different treatments employed. The crossbred (Hamari x Watish) ewes showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher gestation length (154.1 ± 3.0 days) than Hamari (152.9 ± 2.7 days) and Watish (152 ± 3.2 days). This study forms a useful base for any future research designed to develop intensive systems for sheep production in the Sudan, through hormonal synchronization of oestrus and use of artificial insemination
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    Association of Blood Progesterone Concentration with Fertility and Infertility in Nubian Does in Sudan
    (University of Khartoum, 2015-04-27) Azza Ali Adam Abuje ; Sharaf Eldin Abdalla Makawi ; Reproduction and Obstetrics
    The objective of this study is to establish correlations between progesterone concentrations at different stages of a controlled breeding programme and fertility rate in Nubian goats. Sixty Nubian does, were divided into 6 equal groups, according to age and body condition score. The first group A received no treatment and was naturally mated at natural heat, while the other groups B-F were treated with intra-vaginal progestagen sponges for 12 days. Group C was injected with eCG 48h before sponge removal. Group D was injected with eCG at sponge removal. Group E was injected with eCG and PGF 2a at the time of sponges removal and Group F was injected with PGF 2a 48 hours before sponges removal. All groups were inseminated with fresh-diluted semen 48h after sponge removal. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on the first day of treatment for oestrus synchronization (ES), mid-period of hormonal treatment (day 6), day of insemination (day of oestrus onset), day 7, day 14 and day 21 post-insemination and at ten days intervals during the period of gestation. The blood samples were centrifuged, sera separated and kept at -20°C till assayed for progesterone hormone (P 4 ) concentration using Radioimmunoassay technique (RIA). The results for the non-Return (NRR) were 50%, 50%, 60%, 60%, 50% and 40% in groups A, B, C, D, E and F respectively, with no significant difference (P! 0.05) among the groups. Pregnancy rates ranged between 30% and 50% without a significant difference (P! 0.05). Kidding rate registered no significance difference among the groups. It reached (40%) in group D and (30%) in the rest of the groups. Group D showed the highest value (kid/doe) when fecundity rates were compared among the groups, whereas the rest of the groups recorded a range of 0.4-0.7, but with no significant difference (P! 0.05). Twining rate was 100% in groups D and E, 67% in groups B, C and E and 33.3% in group F. Litter size was 2.5 in group D and ranged between 2.3 to 1.3 in the other groups without a Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www.verypdf.com/ to remove this watermark. significant difference (P! 0.05). Pregnancy period was significantly longer (P! 0.05) in group B, 152.2±1.9 days, where it was 142±2.1 days in group A. The progesterone concentrations on day one in both does that carried to full term and those returned to oestrus differed according to the phase of oestrus in each doe at the time of hormonal treatment. The total mean of the P 4 concentrations on this day was 14.04±9.63 nmol/l and 12.91±5.25 nMol/l in does that carried to full term and those returned to oestrus, respectively, with no significant difference. At the mid-period of treatment, the total mean of P 4 registered a higher concentrations that reached up to 26.92±12.90 nmol/l and 23.70±9.98 nMol/l in goats that carried to full term and those returned to oestrus, respectively, without a significant differences (P! 0.05). Progesterone concentration then significantly (P! 0.05) declined to its lowest concentrations on the day of insemination (oestrus), the total mean of P 4 concentration was 1.71±0.86 nMol/l and 3.86±6.01 nMol/1 in does that carried to full term and those returned to oestrus, respectively. Seven days after insemination, the total P 4 mean was found to increase significantly in goats that carried to full term to (33.81±9.97 nmol/ml) compared to those returned to oestrus (11.56±7.89 nmol/l). On day 14 post-insemination, the mean P 4 concentrations significantly (P! 0.05) increased with the progression of pregnancy in the goats that were carried to full term, the total mean registered was 35.77±15.91 nmol/l, where as in the goats that returned to oestrus it was 19.31±18.29 nMol/l. On day twenty one after insemination, the total mean P 4 concentration in the goats that were carried to full term was 33.36±16.65 nmol/l where as in the goats that returned to oestrus the total mean level P 4 decreased to 3.67±6.99 nmol/l with a significant difference (P! 0.05) between the two groups. During the first days of pregnancy the progesterone levels rised sharply compared to oestrous levels then, they were maintained at high levels with fluctuating peaks throughout pregnancy, until 2-3 days prior to parturition when they abruptly declined on the Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www.verypdf.com/ to remove this watermark. day of parturition. The progesterone concentrations significantly (P! 0.05) varied among the does through the period of pregnancy but were not affected by the treatments. However, four does in groups A, C, D and E recorded sudden decline in P 4 levels between days 30-95 of pregnancy indicating embryonic mortality. It was noticed that group D which showed the highest percentages in kidding rate, fecundity, twinning rate and litter size, also registered the highest P 4 concentrations at mid-period of progesterone sponges treatment, day 7 and day 21 postinsemination. These results illustrated the importance of progesterone assay in detection of early pregnancy, early embryonic losses and in studying fertility indices in the Sudanese Nubian does.
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    Approaches for Treatment of Retained Placenta in Cross-bred Dairy Cows and their Effect on the Postpartum Period
    (University of Khartoum, 2015-04-11) Jermano, Caesar ; Sharaf Eldin Abdalla Makawi ; Reproduction and Obstetrics
    In this study, 231 cross bred dairy cows (Butana XFriesian) were used to determine the incidence of retained placenta in Khartoum State, its effect on postpartum reproductive traits and to validate the success rate of three methods of treatment in maintaining normal fertility levels after parturition. The influences of age, parity, body weight, foreign blood percentage and season on recovery rate were also studied. The animals were divided into four groups. The control group (C) consisted of 84 cows, in which the placenta was expelled normally (within12 hours) and no treatment was applied. The rest of the animals were all diagnosed as having retained placenta and they were randomly divided into three treatment groups. The first group (G1) was treated with manual removal of the placenta, intrauterine Tetracycline pessaries and intramuscular (I/m) injection of Oxytetracycline. The second group (G2) received the same treatment as (G1) in addition to (I/m) injection of (PGF2α). The third group (G3) was treated as (G2) with the exception that, (PGF2α) was administered at two weeks postpartum. Rectal palpation was conducted, once weekly, to monitor the progress of uterine involution and the commencement of ovarianactivities. Body weight changes were also recorded weekly using Dalton's weigh band. The results of the postpartum reproductive traits obtained in the four groups (C), (G1), (G2) and (G3) showed as follows, the over all averages period achieved for complete uterine involution were at 29.44±7.93 days, 25.12±7.25 days, 22.65±8.04 days and 23.19±4.78 days, respectively, while the first detected ovarian activities were indicated at 38.27±13.54 days, 47.46±22.07 days, 44.28±23.58 days and 42.46±21.96 V days, respectively. Occurrences of first observable postpartum oestrus attained at 53.90±24.11 days, 45.16±20.34 days, 48.84±25.46 days and 41.93±16.03 days, respectively, while the numbers of services per conception recorded were 3.05±2.13, 3.55±1.81, 3.26±1.79 and 2.81±1.59, respectively. The open periods recorded were 115.39±22.98 days, 114.99±34.78 days, 114.51±28.33 days and 98.68±25.00 days, respectively. The results revealed that the three treatment groups recorded significantly shorter periods for completion of uterine involution, commencement of ovarian activities and occurrence of first observable postpartum oestrus. Number of services per conception and length of the open period showed no significant difference between the control group and treatment groups (1) and (2). However, records obtained for these reproductive traits in treatment group (3) weresignificantly superior to those of other groups. Old Age, parity and loss of body weight were among the factors found to influence, adversely, uterine involution, ovarian activities, occurrence of first observable postpartum oestrus and consequently the length of the open period. Foreign blood percentage showed variable effect on postpartum reproductive traits, ranging between weak and moderate significance. Comparison of results obtained in the different season revealed that, summer had an adverse effect on postpartum reproductive traits in all groups, while better record, were encountered in autumn and wint
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    Pubertal Traits In Male and Female Sudanese Desert Sheep
    (University of Khartoum, 2015-04-05) karrar,Thoyba Faroug Fadol ; Sharaf Eldin Abdall Makawai ; Reproduction and Obstetrics
    The objective of the present study was to study pre and post pubertal development of reproductive traits, and to prescribe criteria for selection of young ewe and rams for breeding purposes. In the first part of this study, 8 ram lambs in their first month of age and average body weight of 8.5 kg were chosen to be used for determination of age at puberty and selection criteria for breeding soundness. External body measurements including, body weight, Heart girth, Wither height, Crown-rump and scrotal circumference were taken every 2 weeks and up to the age of 32 weeks. At the age of 20 weeks the ram lambs were subjected to semen collection once/week for 9 weeks using artificial vagina. The semen samples were examined for assessment of quantitative and qualitative characteristics using standard laboratory procedures. The results showed that puberty was attained in Desert ram lambs at an average age of 23.3±1.6 weeks ,body weight 25.6 ± 2.9 kg, Heart girth 72.3 ± 5.2 cm, crown-rump 83.2 ± 2.9 cm and scrotal circumference 24.9 ± 2.4 cm. Strong correlations between body weight and all body measurements (P< 0.01) were depicted during the period preceding puberty. The analysis of semen showed that all characteristics were low in quantity and quality in the initial collections, but there was a gradual progress with age until adult levels were reached at 29 weeks of age. In the second part of this study, 8 Desert ewe lambs were selected at their first month of age and with an average body weight of 10 kg to monitor their pubertal reproductive traits. viii All external body measurements were taken every 2 weeks, as in the ram lambs, up to 32 weeks of age. After weaning blood samples were taken for determination of progesterone levels around puberty. Desert ewe lambs showed their first oestrus at an average age of 25 ± 8.2 weeks with an average Heart girth of 69.6 ± 4.7, Crown-rump of 81.8 ± 2.9 cm and body weight of 23.6 ± 3.1 kg. Data of progesterone analysis showed that there was a significant rise in progesterone levels (> 1 ng/ml) immediately before the signs of first oestrus could be seen. The results also showed that there was a high correlation between body weight and body measurements taken during the study period. In conclusion, the present results indicated that age at breeding soundness occurred in Desert ram lambs at an average age of 29 ± 1 weeks and that ewe lambs could attain puberty at on average age of 25 ± 8.2 weeks .