Department of Genetics and Animal Breading

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    Characterization of Butana Cattle and their Production System in the River Nile State
    (University of Khartoum, 2019-07) Raga Abdalla Yousif Yagoub ; Genetics and Animal Breading
    Characterization of Butana Cattle and their Production System in the River Nile State M.Sc. in Tropical Animal Production Raga Abdalla Yousif Yagoub Abstract: The objectives of this study were to characterize the dairy production systems, adopted management practices, identify Butana cattle breeding goals and constraints to dairy production. Butana cattle are kept by semi- nomadic tribes in a mixed crop-livestock production system and are the dominant livestock species. Their characterization is an important prerequisite for developing a sustainable group breeding programme. Information for this study was collected from 250 Butana cattle owners in 10 villages in the River Nile State using a semi- structured questionnaire, group discussions, and personal observation. The herds were randomly selected, A set of detailed semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect information from Butana cattle owners in one-visit-interviews. The majority of respondents in this study (83.2%) owned farms while 13.6% had leased farms and 3.4% were on communal land. Most of Butana cattle owners (93.6%) indicated livestock to be their main activity. Butana cattle have multi-functional roles in the production system and milk production is important for obtaining regular cash income and home-consumption needs. The ranking of breeding objectives on a scale of 0 to 1 was 0.37, 0.31and 0.2 for milk, meat and the social role of cattle. Water was obtained from traditional wells by 55.6% of owners while 5.6% obtained water from water points equipped with tank and pump and 38.8% got their water from both services. The distance to watering point was about 1-5 km for 8% of owners while 57.4% of owners had to move their animals more than 5km to the water source and 34.6% of owners avail water on the farm. Most herds (62.0%) grazed for 12 hours daily while 29.2% grazed for 15 hours and 8.8% grazed for 18 hours. Reasons for low milk production in summer were said to be limited water availability (88.4%), limited feed (9.2%) and high temperatures (2.4%). Migration distance ranged between 100 and 300 km for all owners. It was concluded that the cause of the rather low milk yield of Butana cows in the field compared with their higher performance reported under research station conditions was the unfavorable production conditions. The provision of extension services, veterinary care, water harvesting, and establishing farmer cooperatives are prerequisites for future improvement.
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    Phenotypic and Genetics Characterization of Three Baggara Zebu Cattle sub-types (Nyalawi, Rezeigi and Mesairi
    (University of Khartoum, ) Maha Musa Mohammed Hamouda ; Farouk Mohammed Elamin ; Genetics and Animal Breeding
    The objectives of this study were to investigate the phenotypic and genetic relationships of body conformation and the variations between and within Baggara zebu breed with its main three sub-types (Nyalawi, Rezeigi and Mesairi), the experiment was conducted at Animal Production Research Center at Helat Kuku, in the north eastern region of Khartoum state and DNA isolation and molecular analysis were carried out at the Molecular Biology Centre, Faculty of Medicine and the rest of the analysis was done on the Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science ALNeelain University, the animal ages of this study were according to incisor eruption between one to four years, they were selected randomly and they were fed normal concentrate and green fodder at lib, a measuring tape (cm) was used for all measurements of phenotypic characters and blood samples for molecular analysis were used, about 78 bulls (33 Nyalawi, 32 Rezeigi and 13 Measiri), body measurements including face length, ear length, horn length, neck length, hum height, hum circumference, withers height, height at hump tip, back height, back length , back length around hump, heart girth, heart girth around hump, body length, chest depth, barrel circumference, pelvic length and width, side length, dewlap length, dewlap width, tail length and body weight were taken from each animal. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software), the mean and Standard error were 47.42±0.62, 21.03±0.37, 14.93±1.69, 35.08±0.9, 11.90±0.61, 25.61±1.05, 113.03±2.62, 121.19±1.65, 119.9±1.31, 71.24±2.39, 121.62±2.14, 139.39±7.42, 154.27±3.24, 123.89± 2.04, 53.27±0.78, 169.88±3.6, 27.57±0.45, 26.026±0.59, 102.46±1.17, 69.27±2.86, 19.6±1.81, 79.41± 1.51 in cm and 227.936±9.997 kg, respectively. Nyalawi sub-type was found to be high significantly (P<0.01), and superior over Rezeigi and Mesairi sub-types in body weight, the mean were 244.24±9.70, 222.00±15.58 and 217.31±10.09 kg, respectively. Heart girth and heart girth around hump were also significantly (P<0.01) greater for Nyalawi sub-type with mean values of 144.18 ±1.87 and 158.67 ±2.68 cm respectively, for Mesairi sub-types were 140.46±2.57and 153.54±3.46 cm respectively and Rezeigi sub-types 135.35±2.97, 150.61±3.58cm, respectively. From the result Nyalawi and Mesairi sub-types were superior in barrel circumference than Rezeigi sub-types, mean and standard error were 172.36±2.98 and 173.15±3.91 cm, respectively and for Rezeigi sub-type barrel circumference was 164.13±3.90cm. Determination of regression coefficient (R2) in Baggara zebu breed (Nyalawi, Mesairi and Rezeigi sub-types) were 0.71, 0.74 and 0.10, respectively. Correlation coefficients of heart girth, body measurements of the three sub-types of Baggara zebu beef cattle (Nyalawi, Mesairi and Rezeigi) were 0. 84, 0.86 and 0. 31, respectively, the correlation coefficient of height at withers, height at back and body weight were highly significant (P<0.01) on Mesairi and Rezeigi sub-types but it was not significant (P>0.05) in Nyalawi sub-types. However, the correlation coefficients of chest depth was highly significant (P<0.01) in Rezeigi and Nyalawi sub-types, but the same correlation in Mesairi sub-types was not significant (P>0.05).The second part of the study was molecular analysis, about sixty one blood samples of each animal (25 Nyalawi, 13 Mesairi, 23 Rezeigi sub-types) were collected from the jugular vein in vacutainer tubes, containing EDTA as anticoagulant and held at 4°C pending laboratory analysis for DNA extraction and molecular marker RAPD-PCR method, three primers were selected randomly, two of them were actively worked, the level of polymorphism among the three sub-types of Baggara zebu breed were 56.85%, and the level of polymorphism among the two sub-types of Baggara zebu breed (Nyalawi and Rezeigi) were 71.43%, but Mesairi sub-type was failed on the test by RAPD-PCR method. In conclusion, the results of linear body measurements of the phenotypic traits for the three sub-types of Baggara zebu breed showed more differences. Molecular variation between the two types Nyalawi and Rezeigi, this variation could be used for selection and breeding strategies in Baggara zebu breed, especially Nyalawi sub-type; However, genetic variation between the three sub-types of Baggara breed needs further investigation.
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    Characterization of Sudanese Native Chicken Breeds with a View to its Utilization and Conservation
    (University of Khartoum, ) Mohyeldein Adam Berima Hasballah ; Ibrahim Abdelsalam Yousif ; Genetics and Animal Breeding
    Abstract: The goals of this study were to characterize the Sudanese native chicken breeds and its production systems and to identify genetic polymorphisms within chicken prolactin (cPRL) and growth hormone (cGH) genes and their associations with some economic traits. The study was carried out in two main phases: Phase one was designed for field work, while phase two was for Molecular work. The field survey was conducted in Kordofan, Blue Nile and Gadaref regions. A structured pre-tested questionnaire was administered to respondent households (N=209). The SPSS statistical software was used to obtain descriptive statistics, while ANOVA and Duncan Multiple Range Test were applied for comparing and separating means among the surveyed regions, respectively. Additionally, POPGENE (V 1.131) was used to calculate genotypic and allelic frequencies, while Marker-traits association analysis was done using GLM procedure of SAS. The Sudanese native chickens were predominantly raised under the traditional extensive production system 98.4%. Among other livestock species chickens, however, showed the lowest ranking priority by respondents. Women have the highest contribution regarding chicken ownership, management and decision making. The flock structure consisted of 39% chicks, 20.5% pullets, 15.9% cockerels, 18% hens and 6.6% cocks, whereas the flock size and the cock: hen ratio ranged from 25.4 to 37.0 and 1: 2.24 to 1: 3.34, respectively. The average egg number per clutch and the average effective population size were 11.56 and 6.06receptively; with the subsequent average inbreeding coefficient was 0.083. Meat provision and cash generating through selling eggs and live birds were the main purposes of keep native chicken, therefore, were targeted as breeding objectives. Moreover, body size and plumage color were the most important factors affecting breeding choices of theXVI breed, while the reproductive performance and fast growth rate were the most preferred traits. Besides, body size and health status were used as criteria for culling both hens and cocks; In particular, feather color in cocks and mothering ability in hens were also considered. According to famers' quality traits grading, the morphological, reproductive and meat taste aspects also received high grades. Newcastle disease, predators, lack of veterinary services and health care were considered to be the major constraints for native chicken keeping. The polymorphisms within cPRL 24 bp indel (Insertion/ deletion) at position -358, (C-2402T) SNP and cGH intron 4 were undertaken with PCR-RFLP technique using AluI and SacI restriction enzymes, respectively. Blood samples were collected from large beladi ecotype generation four (selected population) on filter cards (FTA). The numbers of samples used were 122, 124 and 136 for cPRL24 bp indel, C-2402T site and cGH intron 4, respectively. Genomic DNA was extracted using modified phenol-chloroform method protocol. The loci genotyped were polymorphic and all possible genotypes were observed. Chi-square test showed deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Regarding cPRL, a 24 bp indel at nucleotide position -358 was identified. The frequency of I and D alleles were 0.79 and 0.21, respectively, and the frequencies of II, ID and DD genotypes were 0.62, 0.33 and 0.05, respectively. Genotypes II and DD were significantly (P<0.05) associated with increase in chick’s body weight at hatch (BWH).The nucleotide substitution of cytosine to thymine (C2402T) SNP resulted in three genotypes with of CC (0.62), CT (0.36), and TT (0.02); while C and T alleles showed frequencies of 0.80 and 0.20, respectively. The genotype CC was significantly (P<0.05) associated with the increase in chick’s body weight at two and six weeks of age. Typing cGH intron 4 showed two alleles A and B with frequencies ofXVII 0.60 and 0.40, respectively and their genotypes AA, AB, and BB with frequencies of 0.62, 0.33 and 0.05, respectively. No significant associations (P> 0.05) were obtained for different genotypes with body weight and egg production traits. In conclusion, the results obtained in current study showed that cPRL polymorphism could be used as genetic markers of body weight in selected large beladi chicken. The utilization and conservation of the native chickens in Sudan entail thorough application of both conventional and non-conventional breeding methods, concomitantly with the improvement of managerial practices and the availability of sufficient and balanced ration in the rural areas.
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    Characterization of Production System of Beef Fattening Farmsin Khartoum State
    (University of Khartoum, ) Hanady Altayb Babker ; Ibrahim AliIshag ; Genetics and Animal Breeding
    This research was conducted to describe and define the production system of cattle fattening farms and to compare and contrast between modern and traditional fattening farms. This study targeted fifty one farmers involved in beef cattle feed lot production system in Khartoum State (Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman localities).A comparison was conducted between modern and traditional farms, through structured and designed questionnaire. The data obtained from the questionnaire were subjected to analysis using the SPSS computer program.The study covered current fattening management practices such as breed of cattle, managerial units, construction of farm, husbandry practices, purpose of operation, herd division, herd size, appropriate age used in fattening, period of fattening, record keeping,marketing, costs, profits and losses, and animal health and production constraints. The most widely used type of cattle in feedlots wasBaggara cattle (76.5%)and most of these cattle (60.8%)were kept in open sheds. Most farms (74.5%)were specialized in cattle fattening. The majority of these cattle (47.1%)were purchased from Almoweilih market and transported to the farm on hoof. Most farmers (78.4%) purchased their cattle through brokers and middlemen and they believed that middlemen and brokers facilitate the marketing process but some other farmers (21.6%) said those brokers sometimes complicate the process. Cattle were bought and sold by visual appraisal .The initial body weight range was 138-213 kg. The animals were fattened for an average period of 2-3 months to reach a final live weight ranging between 254 and 332kg.The feed stuffs used in fattening includedgroundnut cake, sorghum stover, wheat bran, cotton seed cake and sorghum. Feed was givento animals frequently throughout the fattening period.The majority of farmers (72.5%) faced problems related to feeding such as high prices of feedstuffs.Always the fattening activities in these farms take place from January to October. Most farmers (70.6%) vaccinated their cattle against anthrax, black quarter, haemorrhagicsepticaemia and pneumonia. Only 2.0% of respondents got veterinary services from government units, and 54.9% resorted to private veterinarians; while 39.2% obtained services from drug dealers. Some farmers confirmed the availability of extension services.Most of these fattening farms (98%) are of high economic returns. The study made a number of recommendations including sale and purchase of animals on the basis of weight and age and provision of extension services to farmers.
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    Assessment of Dairy Cattle Production Systems in Khartoum State
    (University of Khartoum, ) Sanaa Abd ELrahman Elhusien Shaa Eldeen ; Ibrahim Ali Ishag ; Genetics and Animal Breading
    This study was conducted to assess the current status of dairy cattle production system in Khartoum State. The study was carried out using a semi structured questionnaire. The investigation covered the three cities of Khartoum State (Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman) in the period April – September 2014. The questionnaire covered different aspects of the production system: general information, cattle breed, herd management, nutrition and breeding system, housing system, production and reproduction performance, health, veterinary and extension services. A total number of 120 dairy farms were visited 26 in Khartoum, 41 in Khartoum North and 53 in Omdurman. The farm owners were directly asked and some information was collected through observation. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS computer program and results were presented as descriptive statistics. The resultsrevealed that 32.5% of respondents were graduate (P>0.05). The highest herd size was found in Omdurman locality (90.4 heads). The lactating cows constituted 49.5, 43.7 and 40.1% of the total number of animals in Omdurman, Khartoum North and Khartoum, respectively. The majority of owners (95.8%) kept cattle for milk production for market purposes and very few owners kept them either ahoppy (0.8%) or for home milk consumption (p>0.05). . Most of the owners (61.7%) did not records. 39.2% of owners preferred cows with low foreign blood percentage for their high diseases resistance (p>0. 05). About 21.7% of owners divided their herd according to milk productivity (p>0.05). The majority of owners (99.2%) used concentrate rations (p>0.05). 21.8% depend on grazing rangeland (p>0.05). However, 99.2% of owners milked their cows manually (p>0.05). 83.3% of herd owners dried their cows before the next delivery. The majority of owners (94.3%) adopted natural insemination in their farms and few of them were using artificial insemination (p<0.05). The majority of owners (70.8%) had plans for genetic improvement of their herd, 29.2% of them did not have plans. Also the majority (69.7%) of owners said the veterinary service was not satisfy and not reachable (p>0.05). The study concluded that miss management, improper farm construction, unbalanced feeding, reproduction inefficiency, gradual increase of foreign blood are the main factors affecting productivity of dairy farms in Khartoum State, in addition to unsatisfactory veterinary and extension services. The study recommended activation of veterinary services and adoption of proper extension services to improve productivity of dairy herds in Khartoum State. Adoption of a suitable breeding program and networking between research centers, decision makers and extension services are needed.