Mother and Child Health Nursing Department

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    Health Care Providers’ and Parents’ Performance Regarding Fever Management in Non Critically Ill Children at Public Pediatric Hospitals at Khartoum State
    (University of Khartoum, 2020) Amna Mohamed Saeed Elasha
    Abstract Background: Fever is a common symptom in childhood, and it is a defense mechanism, always is a paternal concern. It may be signs of infections non-infectious cause. There is no guideline in the management of fever in children for both health care provider and parents. This study aims to assess the healthcare provider and parents for their knowledge, and attitudes regarding the management of fever in a public governmental hospital Khartoum State. Methods: A Descriptive cross-sectional hospital-based study, in four outpatient pediatric hospitals was conducted. Sixty health care providers and 230 parents caregiver have been included in the study (six months from January 2018 to July 2018). The questionnaire elicited information about the definition and cause of fever, concerns about the method of temperature measurement, and treatment modalities and observational interview questionnaire: to assess knowledge of childhood fever management. Likert scale: to assess attitude towards fever management and observational checklist: to assess health care providers practice, regarding childhood fever management. It contains assessment (history and physical management). Results: Illustrated that 75% of health care provider they used tepid sponging for the treatment of fever, before antipyretics. Seventy-five percent used a combination of antipyretics paracetamol and Ibuprofen. Two-third of them thinks antipyretic can prevent febrile convulsions in children. Forty-five used an ice bag to reduced fever. Twenty percent of them have an unsafe practice, they give treatment for fever if the child has a low-grade fever; half of them use the physical method with antipyretic and most of them they did know to do a full work-up. Regarding parents, knowledge more than 90% of them, don't know have a thermometer at home, they measure temperature by hand. Most of them they don't know when to treat the fever, they use the antipyretic and physical method together in more than 90%. Only 50% give the dose of antipyretic according to experience with their doctor, one third decide by themselves, cold sponging use by parents in 90 % of them, 40% insist for antibiotics if even their doctor said that is not necessary Conclusion health care provider is not following the international protocol of fever and also the parents, most of them have unsafe practice Recommendation: to introduce fever protocol in nursing school and medical school. Implementation of educational programs regarding the management of the febrile child in the primary healthcare setting. المستخلص المقدمة :الحمى من الأعراض الشائعة في الطفولة وهي تعد آلية دفاع عنه, دائما هي مصدر قلق الأباء, قد تكون علامات التهابات لامراض معدية وغير معدية. لا توجد موجهات لعلاج الحمى عند الأطفال لكل من مقدم الرعاية الصحية والآباء. هذه الدراسة تهدف إلى تقييم معرفة وسلوك مقدم الرعاية الصحية والآباء تجاه علاج الحمى عند الاطفال باربع مستشفيات اطفال حكومية بولاية الخرطوم. المنهجية : دراسة وصفية مستعرضة في العيادات الخارجية لأربعة مستشفيات اطفال حكوميةبولاية الخرطوم. شملت الدراسة 60 من مقدمي الرعاية الصحية و ايضا تضمنت 230 من الآباء والأمهات خلال مدة الدراسة (ستة أشهر من يناير 2018 إلى يوليو 2018). استخدم الاستبيان لجمع المعلومات حول تعريف وسبب الحمى , طريقة قياس درجة الحرارةوطرق العلاج والمقابلة لجمع المعلومات من الاباء والامهات ومقياس ليكرت: لتقييم السلوك تجاه علاج الحمى وقائمة المراقبة: لتقييم ممارسة مقدمي الرعاية الصحية ، فيما يتعلق بعلاج الحمى عند الأطفال (يحتوي على تقييم احذ التاريخي والكشف على المريض) النتايج : اوضجت النتائج ان 75٪ من مقدمي الرعاية الصحية استحدموا الكمادات الباردة لعلاج الحمى قبل خافضات الحرارة. 75٪ استخدموا توليفة من خافضات الحرارة. يعتقد ثلثاهم أن خافض الحرارة يمكن أن يمنع التشنج الحموي عند الأطفال. 45٪ استخدموا كيس ثلج لتقليل الحمى. 20٪ منهم يمارسون ممارسة غير آمنة (اعطائهم علاجًا للاطفال الذين يعانون من حمى منخفضة )، نصفهم يستخدم الطرق الفيزيائية مع خافض الحرارة ، ومعظمهم يعرفون القيام بواجبهم . فيما يتعلق بالوالدين ، فإن أكثر من 90 ٪ منهم، لا يمتلكون مقياس حرارة في المنزل ، فهم يقيسون درجة الحرارة يدويًا. معظمهم لا يعرفون متى يعالجون الحمى، ويستخدمون طريقة خافضة للحرارة والطريقة الفيزيائية معًا في أكثر من 90٪. 50٪ فقط خدم يعطون جرعة خافض الحرارة وفقًا لاستشارة الطبيب ، ويقرر الثلث بأنفسهم العلاج ، الكمادات الباردة تستحدم من قبل 90٪ من الوالدين ، 40٪ يصرون على المضادات الحيوية حتى لو قال طبيبهم أن ذلك غير ضروري الخلاصة : مقدمي الرعاية الصحية لا يتبعون البروتوكول الدولي لعلاج الحمى وكذلك معظم الاباء والامهات لا يتبعون رعاية امنة لعلاج الحمى التوصيات : ادخال بروتوكول علاج الحمى في كليات الطب والتمريض لضمان الممارسة الامنة وكذلك تنفيذ البرامج التعليمية المتعلقة بعلاج الحمى عند الاطفال في اماكن الرعاية الصحة الأولية.
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    Domestic Violence among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics at Garri Hospital in Khartoum State
    (University of Khartoum, 2020) Tayba Mohammed Ali Abaker
    ABSTRACT Background: Domestic violence (DV) against pregnant women increases risk of adverse outcome as miscarriage, preterm labor, bleeding and postpartum psychosis. The obstetrics and gynecological nurses have a unique role to serve as the primary care nurses of pregnant women who suffer from domestic violence. Objective: To Study domestic violence among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional hospital based study in antenatal clinic. The study conveniently recruited 236 pregnant women, data were collected by interview questionnaire . Data were analyzed and a suitable descriptive and inferential statistic method was used. Results: Prevalence of DV among pregnant women was 113(47.9%). Significant correlation between verbal abuse in front of others and husband Alcohol -Consumption (P value =0.005),positive significant correlation between husband provision of wives needs and husband’s occupation and annual income P value = (0.003 and 0.001) respectively, significant correlation between problem with husband and marital duration (P value = 0.002) and there was association between verbal abuses on pregnancy outcomes as follows a feeling of not interest in pregnancy, vaginal bleeding and abortion with P value = (0.000, 0.003, 0.001) respectively. Conclusion: Domestic violence against pregnant women was more prevalent. المستخلص خلفية: العنف المنزلى ضد النساء الحوامل يساهم فى زيادة المخاطر الصحية كالاجهاض والنزيف والولادة المبكرة وكذلك الحالات النفسية فى فترة النفاس .تلعب ممرضة التوليد / أمراض النساء دورًا فريدًا للعمل كممرضة رعاية أولية للحوامل اللاتي يعانين من العنف المنزلي. الهدف: تهدف هذه الدراسة الى معرفة العنف المنزلي بين النساء الحوامل بعيادة رعاية الحوامل. المنهجية : دراسة وصفية أجريت بعيادة رعاية الحوامل ، شملت الدراسة 236 من النساء الحوامل تم اختيارهن بطريقة ملائمة، تم جمع البيانات عن طريق استبانة مقابلة. النتائج: كان معدل انتشار العنف المنزلي بين النساء الحوامل113 47.9 ٪. وجود علاقة ذات دلالة احصائية بين الإساءة اللفظية أمام الاخرين والازواج المدمنين على الكحول P value = 0.005. و علاقة ذات دلالة احصائية بين توفير الازواج لاحتياجات الزوجات ومهنة الزوج والدخل السنوى 0.003 ,P value =( 0.001 على التوالي. وكذلك تجود علاقة ذات دلالة احصائية بين عمر الزواج والمشاكل مع الزوج . P value =0.002.كما يوجد ارتباط ذات دلالة احصائية بين العنف المنزلي اللفظي وعدم الرغبة فى الحمل, النزف والاجهاض بدلالة احصائية p value = ( 0.000 , 0.003, 0.001) على التوالى. الخلاصة: كان العنف المنزلي ضد النساء الحوامل أكثر انتشارًا.
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    BCG Efficacy in Children Aged 1-7 years In A rural Area in East Nile Province
    (University of Khartoum, 2015-04-01) Mai Mohamed El Hassan Mustafa ; Salah Ahmed Ibrahim ; Paediatrics and Child Health
    Tuberculosis remains the most common single cause of death. Although BCG vaccination was introduced in 1920, yet its protective role remains contraversial. This study was conducted in three rural areas in East Nile Province, during the period from 1st of June to 31ist of August 2003. It was community-based study done through house-to-house survey. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of BCG vaccine and to correlate the efficacy to presence or absence of scar and some social factors. A total of 398 children (50.3% Males and 49.7% Females) aged 12 months to seven years were studied. All relevant informations on medical, social history, history of BCG vaccination including age of vaccination, symptoms suggestive of tuberculosis, physical examination including checking BCG scar and measurement of scar size, were noted on a pre-coded questionnaire. Mantoux test was done and the induration was measured 72 hours later. The study showed that the predominant age group was 12-36 months, which represents 42.7% of the study population; 95% were BCG vaccinated (documented by BCG scar, vaccination card or both). 73.9% of them were vaccinated in the first 3 months of age and 72% of the vaccinated had BCG scar, 39.1% of the scars measured from 2 to 5 mm, reflecting good efficacy of BCG vaccine given.68.85% of children 8 showed tuberculin reaction less than 5mm while only 2.5% showed reaction more than 10 mm. It was found that there is significant association between the size of the scar and tuberculin measurement supporting the fact that BCG scar is a strong indicator for vaccine efficacy. During the study 2(0.5%) cases of TB were diagnosed, their ages were 14 and 18 months and both were BCG vaccinated as documented by BCG scar (in the range of 2-5 mm), infected TB cases represent (0.1%) of the vaccinated children, which reflect high protection although the number of non vaccinated group was small in comparison with the vaccinated group. Social factors such as family income and number of persons per room did not significantly affect TB infection. The study concluded that BCG vaccination was efficient reflected in the good immunity documented by BCG scar and just (0.1%) TB cases among the vaccinated group.