Desertification and Desert Cultivation Studies

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    Effect of Treated waste water from Oil Refinery on Elemental load in Soil, Fruit and Tree, El Obied North Kordofan State, Sudan
    (University of Khartoum, ) Mustafa, Hytham Elshazli Edris ; Mubarak Abdelrahman Abdalla ; Desertification Studies
    This study was carried out to assess the effects of irrigation with treated waste water from El Obeid oil Refinery Company (10 km north El Obeid City, North Kordofan State) on accumulation of elements in the soil and plant parts of Citrus aurantifolia, Moringa oleifera and Psidium guajava. Two methods of waste water treatments (lagoon and sand basin filter) were compared with fresh water. Three replications of soil samples (0-30 and 30-60 cm) were collected from under the canopy of each tree irrigated with either fresh water or treated waste water. A control soil sample was also collected from a distal area located at about 3.5 km from the refinery site. Similarly, three plant samples (leaves, roots and fruits) from ea ch tree were also collected. Fresh and treated waste water, soil, water and plant samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity and elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Si, Sr,Ti, V, and Zn) using Inductive Couple Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP- OES 725). The differences between irrigation with treated waste water and fresh water were statistically determined using the analysis of variance. Elements load in treated waste water was not significantly different from fresh water and lower than the permissible limits prescribed by World Health Organization. However, content of Ca, K, Mg, Naand Si was significantly (P ≤ 0.01) higher than that reported in fresh water. Load of elements such as Ag, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti and V in the soil found under the different tree types was not significantly (P ≥ 0.05) different between fresh and treated waste water. However, irrigation with treated waste water resulted in significantly (P ≤ 0.01) higher soil content of As, Ba, Ca, K, Mg, Na and Si (8.37, 49, 666, 1217, 821, 311.3, 61368 ppm, respectively) as compared to fresh water (02.08, 41, 800, 1058, 1305, 370.7, 23862 ppm, respectively). Generally, the content of Al, As, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Ni, P, Pb, Si, Ti, V and Zn in the different plant parts irrigated with waste water was significantly (P ≤ 0.01) higher than that irrigated with fresh water. The study concluded that (1) use of treated waste water for irrigation of plants my create environmental hazards, (2) production activities at the refinery site have introduced lots of heavy metals in the soil due to air pollution and (3) Moringa showed higher capacity for accumulation of metals and could therefore be used for bioremediation of soil pollution with heavy metals.
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    Sudan Environment 5 (2)
    ( 1985-10) Tag Elseed, Mirghani
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    Extent and Mitigation of Drought Effects in Western and Central Darfur A case study of Nomadic Pastoralists
    (University of Khartoum, ) Marzoug, Jalaleldein Abdulaziz ; Idris Mohamed Nur
    Abstract: The study aimed to assess drought effects and mitigation measures on the environment of nomadic pastoralists in western and central Darfur region. It was intended to shed light on traditional methods and mechanisms of local community to cope with drought and to recommend measures that could be helpful in managing future droughts .The study was conducted during the period January- December, 2012.Primary data were collected through interviewing 100 nomadic pastoralists in each of the western and central Darfur states and by using stratified and systematic random simple sampling methods. Interviews of the staff of Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and the Ministry of Health were also conducted. Field observations on pastoralist’s activities were also recorded. Secondary data were obtained from books, reports and other materials related to the research topic. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) programme. The results showed that the drought of 1984 was the largest in the area. Drought has severely affected the environment of the arid and the semi-arid zones of west and central Darfur in terms of water resources, land resources, agricultural production, livestock rearing and wildlife, as well as the social impact. The number of animals owned by respondents were sharply reduced and food sources such as millet and milk were not available. During drought, 60% of the people in the study area reported that they survived by taking sorghum, sugar and legumes from different governmental and nongovernmental organizations and relief agencies. Prevalence of malnutrition was very high during droughts, in addition to other diseases which were also related to malnutrition. There was no response to drought, especially from local and central governments, whereas there was a good response from national and foreign nongovernmental organizations. Drought was the main cause of nomads migration of about 33% of nomads from their original areas and the majority of nomads lost 77% of their livestock. Poverty, war and conflicts were subsequently coupled with lack of technical skills for ecosystem management and hindered coping with drought. For the nomadic pastoralists to be able to mitigate the drought effects, drought monitoring, early warning system of meteorological and weather forecasting and satellites system should be established. Information dissemination to the communities concerned should be implemented. Community empowerment and capacity building should be promoted to reduce community vulnerability to drought incidences.
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    Bionomics of the Green Lacewing Chrysopab Carnea Stephens
    (University of Khartoum, ) مالك, محمد يوسف ; .
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    The Bases Of Gizzu Herbs Adaptation To Water limited Invironment In North Darfur
    (University of Khartoum, 2015-04-27) Shamma Mohamed Ali Abusam ; Faisal Elgasim Ahmed
    A field survey was carried out in the Gizzu district, which lies in the Northern Darfur State, to determine species composition and distribution of Gizzu flora. The morphological characteristics of a selected group of herbs and grasses in the Gizzu area and their relation to water-limited adaptation were investigated. In addiition, laboratory and glass house experiments were conducted to determine the effect of temperature and water stress on the perfomance of two species of Blepharis, namely B .linariifolia and B. ciliaris. The morphological, physiological and anatomical bases of adaptation were discussed. The results idicated that the flora of the Gizzu district is composed of four types of vegetation namely; permanent trees and shrubs, perennial herbs and grasses, succulent and ephemeral (annual) plants. The majority of Gizzu herbs and grasses were commonly observed on light soils ( sandy soil ) compared to the relatively heavy soils ( Wadi soil ). The distribution of the vegetation types were closely associated with the amount of rainfall and soil types in the Gizzu area. The variations in morphological characteristic of Gizzu herbs and grasses were due to their adaptive fitness to defined boundaris of soil and weather. The seeds of Blepharis species germinated on a wide range of temperatures (15–45oC) and the percentages of germination were higher particularly when the seeds were soaked befor sowing. The results also indicated that, the water-stressed plants of Blepharis had significantly reduced leaf surface area, and increased the number of hairs and prickles. They also showed low stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and leaf water potential. More over, the anatomical variations were particularly evident in stressed plants specially in the thickness of the cuticular layer in leaves and the prederm in both roots and stems.