Department of Geography

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    التحول و التغير في نظم الإقتصاد الريفي بمناطق السودان الهامشية في الفترة من 1980- 2005 م
    (University of Khartoum, ) حلو عبدالعاطي محمد ; حسن عبدالله المنقوري ; قسم جغرافيا
    This study investigates the transformations and changes in rural economy systems in Southern White Nile State (Kosti and ElGebelein Localities). The main objective of this study is to explore the indicators of these transformations and changes, the main factors behind them, and the impacts. To achieve its objectives, the study adopted the regional cultural political, ecology approach, which combine the economic, political, demographic, and social concerns in the analysis of man-nature relationship. The study was based on primary data collected during fieldwork using questionnaire, interviews, group discussion, and direct observation, besides the secondary data from both published and unpublished sources. The study showed that the rural economy has been significantly transformed and changed during the last decades. Indicators of this transformation and changing include: deterioration of traditional production systems, lack of means of production, poor income, drop-out from traditional sectors, more pressure on natural resources, rapid rate of wage labours migration, weakness of traditional institutions, social relation network, moral economy and rapid rural-urban migration. The study indicated that this transformation and change is due to many factors including: economic, natural, demographic, and political factors. The study concluded that a comprehensive rural development approach (sustainable rural livelihood and capacity building approach) and the elimination of structural obstacles that hinder traditional activities and recognition of the legitimate rights of traditional producers are the best means to conserve and revitalize the rural production system and to achieve sustainable development in the future.
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    مدينة الابيض
    (University of Khartoum, ) سيد احمد محمد الحسن ; محمد محمود الديب
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    Causes and Impacts of Land Cover Changes at Sharq Alneel Locality-Khartoum State (1973-2014) - Using Remote Sensing Technique
    (University of Khartoum, ) Sumaya Mohamed Awad Elseed Hassan ; GalalEldin Eltayeb ; Geography
    The extension of bare lands at the expense of productive land areas has been a repeated phenomenon in different places on earth’s surface and there are many evidences which indicate human misuse of land in addition to climatic factors that accelerated this phenomenon, as it is the case in the study area. The main objective of the study is to detect the land cover changes at SharqAlneel Locality, Khartoum State in 41 years (1973-2014), andto show the drivers of land cover changes and their environmental and socio-economic consequences. The study used remote sensing technique, which considered as one of the most important recent means that facilitates efficient decision making for resources management, as baseline tool to detect land cover changes and this technique has been supported by qualitative interviews. Four satellite imageries were used in this study which are: Multi-Spectral Scanner (land sat1, MSS 1973), Thematic Mapper (land sat5, TM 1986 & 1995), and Operation Land Image (land sat8, OLI 2014) which were digitally processed using ERDAS IMAGINE 10.2 software to classify land cover types of the study area. To detect the land cover changes the images were classified into four classes: natural vegetations, bare lands, agricultural lands and residential areasusing supervised classification method and then an image differencing technique was applied to identify the changes in the years (1973-1986), (1986-1995), (1995-2014) and (1973-2014). The analysis of the satellite imageries showed the gradual transformation of natural vegetation cover to bare land. The findings showed that natural vegetation cover decreased from 8376 km2 in 1973 to 2710 km2 in 2014, while bare lands increased from 489 km2 in 1973 to 4454 km2 in 2014. All the types of land cover of the study area were increased at the expense of natural vegetation cover. These changes in natural vegetation cover indicates to the acceleration of land degradation as a normal result of climatic changes and human misuse of land in addition to absence of ongoing monitoring and assessments of natural pastures and desert creeping by the specialized authorities which ultimately led to different environmental and socio-economic impacts in the study area. The envisaged changes in the study area are very profound and demand rigorous scientific verification. Therefore, it is recommended that a multi – professional team to be assigned to carry out further comprehensive research to limit the progress of these changes.
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    مدينة عطبرة دراسة فى جغرافية المدن
    (University of Khartoum, ) محمد ادريس أحمد ; محمد محمود الصياد
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    The Adaptation Mechanisms and Coping Strategies to Environmental Degradation in Tokar Area – Red Sea State – Sudan
    (University of Khartoum, 2015-06-13) Ibrahim Elsayed, Elbeshir ; Geography
    This study focuses on the causal relationship between human adaptations and environmental degradation in Tokar area, the southeast part of the Red Sea State. In this area the traditional agro-pastoral adaptations adopted by local inhabitants were viable and adaptable to the natural environment of the area, collapsed and changed into multi-active households mechanisms based on both land based activities and wage labour in towns due to the degradation of natural resources which is caused by state intervention in rural economy, urbanization as well as the effect of climate. Two approaches are used in this work; the regional approach so as to study human adaptations in specific environment and the political ecology approach in which both the ecological and socio-political structures are combined to discuss causes of environmental degradation and changes in human adaptations. 300 samples are used for this study distributed between Tokar and Agig mahalyias (localities). This study finds that environmental degradation in this area is attributed to state intervention in rural economy, urbanization and the effect of climate. Due to the degradation of natural resources the traditional agropastoral adaptations were collapsed and changed into multi-active household mechanisms in which animal raising, agriculture, charcoal production, fishing and wage labour in towns are the activities performed by local inhabitants to cope with environmental degradation in this area. This study recommends the following recommendations to preserve the natural environment of the area and to improve the living conditions of local inhabitants: 1- To develop an effective local development approach in Tokar area.2- To develop governmental structures to deal with environmental degradation in the area. 3- Capacity building for local inhabitants and official employed in the field of resources utilization