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    Heavy metal content in moss samples from Jebel Marra, Darfur, Sudan
    (UofK, 2012) I. Madani ; S. El-Tigani
    A survey of heavy metal contents in 9 moss species: Barbula ehrenbergii (Lor.) Fleisch, Pleurochaete squarossa (Brid.) Lindb., Tortella humilis (Hedw.) Jenn, Pholonotis longiseta (MMichx) E. Britton, Philonotis tenuis (Hedw.) Brid, Funaria hygrometrica Hedw, Bryum pseudotriquetrum (Brid.) Shwaegr, Thuidium furfurosum (Broth.) Broth and Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw. Collected from three sites in Jabel Marra region, Darfur, Sudan was carried out . Concentrations of the elements sodium, potassium, zinc, calcium, copper, manganese and iron in the mosses gave an indication of the soil content in the selected sites and significant differences in heavy metal concentrations were recorded for different sites.
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    Status of Groundwater Quality and Pollution Risk in Sudan
    (University of Khartoum, 2003) Abdo, Gamal Eldin Mortada
    Groundwater represents a vital source of fresh water supply in Sudan. Considerable groundwater potential is available in many aquifers covering large areas of the country. Many opportunities exist for utilizing this resource for future agricultural, industrial and urban development. Based on information from 1600 selected wells, the water quality of the main aquifers is generally good and fit for all purposes. Total dissolved solids (TDS) is low and rarely exceed 400 mg/l except at few locations where some small saline pockets exist with TDS exceeding 5000 mg/l. The Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) in most aquifers is low, indicating high suitability for irrigation. With regard to contamination risk, urbanization and associated industrial activities are considered to be the major threat on groundwater. On-site excrete disposal system and improperly dumped solid waste pose serious hazard to groundwater under many major urban cities in Sudan. Also, excessive utilization of fertilizers over the past two decades has caused Nitrate contamination in areas where large agricultural activities exist. There are many laws and legislations for groundwater development and protection in Sudan but they are not enforced for many reasons. As an example of urban pollution, contaminant transport modelling has been applied to the aquifer in Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, to predict future effects of on-site sanitation. The results show that contamination can spread vertically to significant depths affecting large parts of the aquifer. As Ammonia is considered to be the major output contaminant from septic tanks, it has been used in the Modelling as a point source pollutant applied in different areas with high concentration of septic tanks and disposal wells.
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    Groundwater flow model for the Nubian aquifer in the Khartoum area, Sudan
    (University of Khartoum, 2011) Abdo, Gamal Eldin Mortada ; Abd Algafar, Maha ; Abdelsalam, Y.
    The interbedded sands and mudstones of the Nubian aquifer provide Khartoum city with more than 43% of its drinking water. The recharge is mainly from the Nile system into semi-confined to confined conditions at depths from 10 m close to the Nile to more than 60 m away from the river. The paper briefly discusses the hydrogeology of the area and the modeling undertaken, which indicates that significant groundwater depletion will be exacerbated over the next 26 years if the present extraction rate continues unchecked. It is recommended that sensitivity studies are undertaken with continuous monitoring to create a computer database, such that appropriate levels of abstraction can be maintained.
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    Development of Flood Frequency Curves for the Eastern Nile
    (University of Khartoum, 2013) Abdo, Gamal Eldin Mortada
    Extreme hydrological events such as floods cause severe damage to the human society living along the rivers, Wadis and coastal areas. Reliable estimation of the magnitudes of these floods with various return periods, particularly in rivers and Wadis, is of great significance in minimizing flood damage and in designing hydraulic structures. This can be achieved through flood frequency analysis. This study aims at conducting flood frequency analysis for the Eastern Nile within Sudan. Annual maximum instantaneous flood peaks at seven stations were statistically analyzed and the underlying frequency distribution for each station was determined. Several flood frequency models have been tested, namely, Extreme Value type1, Two parameters Log Normal, Three parameters Log Normal and Person type III distribution. The selection of the best frequency model for a particular station was based on the Chi square test and minimum root mean square error. The parameters of the distributions have been determined by the method of L-moments. A regional analysis was then carried out using the Index Flood method. The results indicate that the seven stations can be grouped into two regions, namely the Blue Nile region and River Atbara region. Hence flood frequency curves were developed for the two regions.
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    Water Sciences for Peace and Sustainable Development in the Eastern Nile: Perspective of Future Cooperation
    (University of Khartoum, 2013) Abdo, Gamal Eldin Mortada ; Eldaw, Ahmed Khalid ; Salih, Abdin M. A.
    Within the framework of UNESCO Cairo Office (UCO) project on water science for peace development in the Eastern Nile, UCO provides support for the technical preparation and facilitation of the Workshop on “Water Sciences for Peace and Sustainable Development in the Eastern Nile: Perspective of Future Cooperation” as a side event to “The International Conference on New Nile Perspective: Scientific Advances in the Eastern Nile Basin”, Khartoum, Sudan, 6-8 May 2013. Indeed, the title is appealing and it resonates with the demands of the time.