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ItemAssessment of the Effectiveness of Extension Services in Khartoum State : An Evaluative Study of the Rural Extension Complexes Programme and the Integrated Services for Vegetable and Fruit Farmers Project.(University of Khartoum, 2015-06-25)This study is designed to assess the effectiveness of two extension projects operating in Khartoum State, namely the Rural Extension Complexes (RECs) of the State Ministry of Agriculture and the Integrated Services for Vegetable and Fruit Farmers (ISVFF). The two programmes were evaluated in terms of their impact on adoption of innovations and gross farm income. Part of the evaluation dealt with job satisfaction and its determinants with respect to the personnel employed by the two extension projects. The conceptual model of adoption of innovations used in the study involved access variables (access to information and access to inputs) as intervening factors, gross farm income/feddan in the model is treated as a dependent variable and used for the ultimate measure of the development of small farmers. The exogenous variables in the model include farmer's age, education, farm size, social participation and cosmopliteness. Another model used in the study is concerned with perceived level of job satisfaction among extension workers in the two projects. Sites of the study include six selected extension villages in Khartoum State, Wad Ramli, Jaili and Ailafoun were incorporated as representatives of REC extension villages, while HaIfaya, Kadaro and Saggai represented ISVFF extension villages.All the villages, with the exception of Ailafoun are located on the east bank of Nile north of Khartoum-North. Selection of the extension villages was based on early dates of establishment of extension service stations. A table of random numbers was employed in the selection of 60 respondents (the REC and ISVFF). Ten farmers were selected from each village using sampling frame provided by the residence extension agents. Primary data were collected by use of structured interview schedules involving the author and respondents in their fields or at home. Secondary data were collected from REC and the ISVFF service stations and the headquarters at Khartoum-North. Analytical techniques in the study include frequency distribution, chi-square, correlation and t-test. (frequency Analytical techniques used distributions), Chi-square, correlation, regression and t-test. Farm size emerged as a principal determinant of adoption of innovations for both farmer groups (the REC and ISVFF), while access to inputs emerged as principal determinants of adoption of innovations among REC farmers, and access to information and cosmopoliteness emerged as principal determinants of adoption of innovateions among ISVFF farmers directly and/or indirectly. Access to REC and ISVFF information is affected by education and cosompoliteness respectively.Access tto ISVFF inputs is affectedby farm size meaning large farmers have easy access to input stores while access to REC inputs is not affected by the exogenous variables used in the study of REC farmers. Two factors emerged as principal determinants of gross farm income for REC farmers, namely access to inputs and access to information. The former has a positive effect on gross farm income while the effect of the later is negative. This suggests that in order to increase gross farm income among REC farmers sufficient supply of inputs is necessary. Gross farm income among ISVFF farmers is not affected by access to information and access to inputs. Two factors emerged as principal determinants of job satisifaction among extension workers, namely training and salary. The former has a positive effect on job satisfaction; while the effect of the later is negative. This suggests that in order to increase the level of job satisfaction among extension workers continuous training opportunities and better salaries should be provided for field extension workers. The REC and the ISVFF farmers perceive of the REC and the ISVFF extension workers as effective in terms of technical competencies and problem solving. Both groups also perceived of extension workers as competent communicators, and able in human relations. Farmers both in the REC and the ISVFF programmes perceived of extension workers as deficient in managerial ability.This finding suggestsa need for management training for field extension personnel. The REC farmers are perceived by the REC extension workers as being more rational while the ISVFF farmers are perceived by the ISVFF extension workers as being less rational with respect to decision making. The principal recommendations that were made on the basis or the findings of the present study include:- 1. The integrated agricultural development approach which involves supply of information inputs, agricultural credit, Storage, transport and marketing facilities should be developed and adopted by the agricultural extension services to enhance agricultural development in Khartoum state. 2. Because the two projects are perusing identical objectives, it is recommended that they be amalgamated under one management to provide truly integrated agricultural extension services to farmers under the supervision of the agricultural extension administration of Khartoum State. 3. Better working conditions and terms of employment provided to extension workers by the agricultural extension administration to ensure successful programme of agricultural extension work in Khartoum State.
ItemAssessment Of The Effectiveness Of Institutional Linkages Between Agricultural Research And Extension Centeres In Khartoum State(University of Khartoum, 2005)This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of institutional linkages between agricultural research stations and the agricultural extension centers. A questionnaire was distributed among nineteen researchers and twenty-two Extensionists. The Extensionists comprised eight Federal Extensionists and fourteen State Extensionists. The study showed that: All researchers interviewed are MSc and PhD holders while only few Extensionists had MSc degree. Researchers had little involvement in various extension tasks and Extensionists had little involvement in various research tasks The majority of researchers described research-extension relationship as medium while all Federal Extensionists described research-extension relationship as non-existing and the majority of State Extensionists describe research –extension linkage as medium. Extensionists depend much on the Ministry of Agriculture in directing their work while researchers depend much on the Federal Ministry of Science and Technology in directing their work. The majority of researchers didn’t depend on suggestions from extension in directing their work. The major conclusion reached in this study is that the institutional linkages between research and extension were weak and the relation-ship between them depend on informal relation ship between researchers and Extensionists. It is therefore highly recommended that: Extensionists should have more funds for education opportunities. Permanent availability of extension worker at research station. Formalizing the relationship between research and extension through establishment of formal research-extension channels. Revise the managerial hierarchy of all parties concerned with a view of enhancing cooperation between them. Mutual respect and understanding to the role of each other through sensitivity training.