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ItemFactor Contributing To Protein Energy Malnutrition Among Under Than Five Years in Sinnar Pediatric Teaching Hospital -2009.(University of Khartoum, )Background: Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a fatal body-depletion disorder. It occurs when the body lacks the calories it needs from protein, carbohydrates and fats. It is a leading cause of child death in developing countries. There are three forms of protein energy malnutrition that include Marasmus, Kwashiorkor and Marasmic-kwashiorkor. According to WHO reports, 149.6 million children under 5 years of age (26.7%) of the world's children of this age group were malnourished in terms of weight - for – age. Geographically, over two thirds of them (72%) live in Asia, while 25% in Africa and 2.3% in Latin America. Material and Method: The study adopted the descriptive cross-sectional hospital based methodology .This was conducted in Sinnar Pediatric Teaching Hospital, from 15Marchto 15May2009. The objective of the research was to study factors contributing to protein energy malnutrition among children under five years the study covered 269 of these children, of whom 39 suffered from (PEM). The research used the methodology of pre- prepared questionnaire, anthropometric measure (weight for age). Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), the association between different variables was checked by using Chi- Square test. P. value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The total proportion of protein energy malnutrition among children under 5 years was (14.5%). PEM was found in (17.9%) of males and (12.1%) of females, but no significant difference was revealed (P = 0.1). PEM was significantly higher among children in age of 11-23 months (32.1%), (P = 0.001) as well as it was found significantly affected by monthly per capita income (P < 0.05). The study also showed that, PEM was found significantly associated with diarrheal disease, malaria and respiratory infections (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Protein energy malnutrition is high among children of uneducated mothers, children with diarrheal diseases, malaria and respiratory Infections as well as it was significantly affected by family income. There is a need for health education among family members, and heath care authorities required to improve control of diseases associated with protein energy malnutrition.
ItemBacterial Associated with Ophthalmic Infection in Domestic Animals and Man in the Sudan(University of Khartoum, 1997)This study was conducted with specific objectives of isolation and identification of bacteria associated with eye infection in cattle, sheep, goats, horses and man. A total of 121 samples were collected from animals and man from different localities in Khartoum State. All the bacteriological examinations were performed. According to technical standards, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were isolated, identified and differentiated using standard biochemical reactions. Gram-positive isolates consisted Staphylococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp., Bacillus spp. and Listeria spp. Gram-negative bacteria were Neisseria spp., Moraxella spp., Branhamella spp., Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Pasteurella spp. A most peculiar thing was isolation of Moraxella osloensis from infected eye of horse similar to that discovered from human. Sheep were mainly affected by Neisseria spp. then Branhamella spp., while cattle were usually affected by Neisseria spp. Goats were affected also by Neisseria spp. Horses were mainly affected with Micrococcus spp. and humans with Staphylococcus spp. According to the local environmental conditions which were mainly dominated by dust storms, the level of infection during winter was very high.
ItemBacteria Of Infected Wounds In Equines In Khartoum State(University of Khartoum, 2007-09)In this study 50 swabs were collected from infected wounds of 25 horses and 25 donkeys, in Khartoum, Omdurman and Khartoum North, during the period from Sept. 2006 to Feb. 2007. Wounds were in animl of various age groups, sexes, and in different sites of the body. The swabs were cultured onblood Agar and MacConkey Agar. Isolates were identified onthe basis of their microscopic appearance, staining reactions, cultural and biochemical characteristics. A total of 51bacterial species was identified which included: Staphylococcus aureus(33.3%), Streptococcus equisimilis (25.5%), Streptococcus zooepidemicus(17.6%), Streptococcus equi(7.8%), streptococcus equinus(3.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa(3.9%), Staphylococcus intermedius (2%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (2%,) Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis(2%), and Escherichia coli(2%), the more frequently isolated was S.aureus, it was susceptible to Cephalexin, Tetracycline, Erythromycinand Gentamycin, intermediately susceptible to Pefloxacin, Ofloxacin, and Clindamycin and resistant toPencillin G Co-trimoxazole, Cefotaoxime, Ciprofloxacin, and Cloxacillin.