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ItemLipid Profile Evaluation Among Sudanese Children With Sickle Cell Anaemia In Khartoum State(university of khartoum, 2014)Sickle cell anaemia is one of the major types of anaemia found in Sudan, especially in western Sudan where the sickle cell gene is frequent. A cross sectional descriptive study was performed in pediatric section of Khartoum educational hospital and Jafaar Ibnouf hospital from October 2013 to January 2014. that aimed to assess dyslipidemia amongst sudanese sickle cell anaemic children, and to find out whether sickle cell anemia is a risk factor for arteriosclerosis by calculating atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) , and atherogenic indices. Also aimed to compare between this indices that which one is more sensitive and predictive for atherosclerosis. Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were estimated for fasting EDTA anticoagulated plasma, for 50 children aged (1-15 years) with sickle cell anaemia (Hb SS) and 40 apparently health non anemic children as control. atherogenic indices were calculated by: (total cholesterol / high-density lipoproteins), (high-density lipoproteins / low-density lipoproteins), and the (atherogenic index of plasma) also calculated as: AIP= Log [TGs]/ [HDL] . The indices were compared in both groups to figure out which index has yielded the highest sensitivity in predicting the risk of having atherosclerosis. The results showed that : total cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein were significantly decreased (P=0.000) for both, while triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein were significantly increased (P=0.000 for both), while there was no significant different (P= 0.876) in low density lipoprotein concentration when compared to control group. On the other hand, both atherogenic indices and atherogenic index of plasma showed a significant abnormality (P=0.000) that indicates a risk for development of atherosclerosis. Atherogenic index of plasma detect large number of patients with high risk to get cardic disease in future when compared to the most commonly used atherogenic indices, from our study we found that, there is a correlation between dyslipidemia in sickle cell anaemia and arteriosclerosis tendency, which indicate that sickle cell anaemia in Sudanese children can be considered as a risk factor for atherosclerosis.