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ItemAntimicrobial activity of Honey and Acacia nilotica extracts against bacteria isolated from wound swabs(university of khartoum, 2012)This study tested the invitro antibacterial activity of Honey and Acacia nilotica extract against bacteria isolated from wound swabs. Standards and clinical isolates tested were (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella Pneumoniae). The clinical isolates were isolated from wound swabs, and were identified using biochemical tests. The invitro antimicrobial Susceptibility testing was performed using cup plate diffusion method. The results showed that Acacia nilotica extracts and Honey exhibited a high antibacterial activity against all types of tested organisms both clinical isolates and standards. The activity of Honey and Acacia nilotica extracts was controlled with some reference antibiotics include Azithromycin and Ciprofloxacin. The Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations (MBCs) were determined.
ItemAntimicrobial Susceptibility of E.coli and Klebsiella spp. Isolated From Leafy Green Vegetables(university of khartoum, 2014)Background: Nowadays the spread of antimicrobial resistance particularly multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli and klebsiella species has become major health problem leading to treatment failure. Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Objective: This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species isolated from leafy green ready to eat vegetables. Method: 45 vegetable samples were collected from different popular and local markets in Khartoum State, Sudan. All samples were cultured and bacteria were isolated in different culture medium and then they were identified by conventional biochemical tests and API20E strips. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for E.coli and klebsiella spp. was done using disk diffusion technique according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Result: Of 164 isolates, 85.9% Klebsiella spp., 3.6% E.coli and 10.3% other organisms including (Kluyvera spp., Enterobacter cloacae, Serratiaficaria, Serratialiquefaciens, Citrobacterfreundii and Pantoea spp. 2, 4). 24.8% of klebsiella spp. showed resistance to augmentin (amoxicllin-clavulanic acid), 12.2% resistant to cefixime, 3.4% resistant to ciprofloxacin, 0.7% resistant to cotrimoxazole and gentamicin, and all Klebsiella spp. showed no resistance to ceftriaxone and meropenem. E.coli showed high susceptibility rate (100%) to all antimicrobials above. Conclusion: E.coli isolates showed high susceptibility to all antimicrobial agents used in the study while Klebsiella spp. showed low resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cefixime and susceptibility to the other antimicrobials used.
ItemCytological Screening of Conjunctiva Changes among Sudanese Patients Attending Ophthalmic Clinic(university of khartoum, 2014)Introduction: The conjunctiva eye cytology is a part of the diagnostic eye cytology provide a tool of a diagnosis of many ocular diseases and conditions with using of a suitable tool of collection of sample. This kind of cytological procedures doing as screening for population ,or specify the disease under study also for comparison of accuracy and usefulness of the different types of tools use in collection of samples. Objectives: The aim of this study was to screen the conjunctival eye cytology in the population under study ,and to describe the cellular pattern in different eye condition to find out the different factors affect cellular components of the conjunctiva and subsequently the eye health status, and to evaluate the usefulness of the conjunctiva eye cytology as an important diagnostic procedures in the diagnosis of different eye condition . Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional hospital base study, done in university of Khartoum, faculty of medical laboratory sciences in department of histopathology and cytology ,to screen conjunctiva cytological changes of ophthalmic clinic patients using swabbing and scrapping cytology for different ocular diseases in period from January 2014 to May 2014. Conjunctiva swabbing and scrapping smears were collected from Abd Alfadeel centre for medicine and eye surgery, Noor Alauoon military eye hospital, Alneelin university eye hospital (collage of optometry) and Maka charity foundation for eye medicine (Ridhy division) ophthalmology clinic. Ninety two92patients participated in this study,56were females and 36were males, conjunctiva smears were fixed by 95% alcohol and air then stained by Pap , Giemsa and hematoxylin stains for cytological evaluation. Results: (89.4%) of cytological finding among adequate samples shown matching with the clinical ocular diagnosis. Scrapping method had the best role in getting adequate samples( 90%),with marked increase of adequacy of sample obtained from elder age patients(34.2%from 41- 60year, 31.5%from 61-80year) and in cases of infection(48.7%). Bacteria was the major cause of infections (86.2%). Conclusion: Conjunctiva cytology is an impressive tool to get information about ocular tissue health status , and can be a useful complementary diagnostic method ,get its role in epidemiological surveys of endemic ocular diseases such as trachoma in our population and for better understand of diseases spreading manner. Key Words: Conjunctiva, cytology, ocular, ophthalmic, trachoma, Pap stain , Giemsa stain.