Oral Rehabilitation

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    Assessment of Knowledge and Attitude of Dentists towards Implant Dentistry in Khartoum Teaching Dental Hospital
    (University Of Khartoum, ) Noha Osman Mohamed AbuElnour ; Ibrahim A Ismail
    Background: Implant dentistry is a novel and evolving division of contemporary dentistry. Dentists need to keep track of these developments to improve knowledge and practice of implant dentistry. The aim of this study was to survey the knowledge and attitude of dentists towards implant dentistry in Khartoum Teaching Dental Hospital. Materials and methods: Data was collected through a questionnaire survey of dentists working at Khartoum Teaching Dental Hospital with experience of no more than 5 years. Respondents were asked about previous education and training in implant dentistry, basic knowledge of implant dentistry, attitude of dentists towards implant dentistry, and interest of dentists in learning more about implant dentistry and their willingness to practice in the future. Results were analyzed according to experience, year of graduation, Graduation University, clinical posts in dental hospital and gender. Results: From 213 participating dentists 90% claimed that they didn’t receive enough lectures and training in implant dentistry. More than 50% of participating dentists expressed poor knowledge about different dental implant systems, designs and sizes. Sixty two percent of participating dentists scored a medium level of implant dentistry. Significant associations were found between implant dentistry knowledge and years of experience, graduation year and different clinical posts in dental hospitals (P=< 0.05). A nearly similar percentage of participants had a medium level of attitude towards implant dentistry. No associations were found between attitude level and different demographic factors. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it was found that implant dentistry knowledge is adequate to some extent, however further improvements are required. Attitude of participating dentists was in accordance with relevant literature.
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    Dental Arch Form and Dimensions in a Sudanese Sample
    (university of Khartoum, 2016-03-24) Fatima M.Eltom ; ShazaKAbass
    : The identification of dental arch forms and dimensions for orthodontic patients is important in achieving a stable, functional and esthetic dentition. There are differences in arch form and dimensions among different population and among different classes of malocclusion in the same population. The objective of this study was to identify Sudanese arch form and dimensions inpatients with Class I, II and III occlusion and compare the results with that of White Americans, to help in the proper selection of the archwire. Materials andMethods: Lower dental casts of 75 Sudanese subjects (30 Class I, 30 Class II, and 15 Class III) were scanned. The most facial portions of 13 proximal contact areas were determined to estimate clinical bracket position for each tooth; four linear and two proportions measurements were taken. Results: The mean intercanine width was 29.49±2.30, and mean intermolar width was 51.64±3.24. The most common arch form for Class I and III occlusion was the ovoid(43% and 47%), respectively and the square (43% and 47%),respectivelyand the least was the tapered archform (13% and 12%). For Class II occlusionthe most common arch form was the ovoid (50%), followed by the square (27%) and the tapered (7%). Differences among the three classes of occlusion were not statistically significant regarding arch the dimensions and form(P>0.05).There were no significant differences between females and males in all arch dimensions measures (P>0.05). Sudanese with Class I and II occlusionhad significantly greater intercanine width (P=0.004) and intermolar widths (P=0.0005) compared to White Americans. Onthe other hand, Sudanese with Class III occlusion showed increased intercanine depth (P=0.029), intermolar depth (P=0.023) and canine W/D ratio (P=0.012) when compared to White Americans. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest with caution that when treating Sudanese subjects one should expect to use preformed ovoid archform wires in orthodontic patients.
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    Assessment of Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs of 5-Year- Old and 12-Year- Old children in Yemen
    (University of Khartoum, 2015-03-30) Abdul-Salam, Khalid ; Yahia El-Tayeb Ibrahim ; Postgraduate Medical Studies Board
    During the period between the first of April 2003 and the End of October 2005 in six governorates in Yemen (cities and environs) selected according to their geographical location, socioeconomic status, different climates and sizes of population an oral health survey was conducted among Yemeni 5-year-old private kindergarten children in urban areas. The sample consisted of (1292) five year old children in kindergartens and (4104) twelve year old school children in urban, periurban and rural areas. To investigate the prevalence and severity of dental caries, dental treatment needs, gingival health condition in relation to age, gender, area of residency, level of parents education, mottled enamel, Qat chewing habit ; in addition to dental attitude and behavior. WHO (1997) criteria were used to assess the individual tooth health status and treatment needs, Mottled enamel was scored according to the Modified Dean's Index (1942), while for the assessment of periodontal health status, Plaque Index (Silness and Loe, 1964), Gingival Index (Loe and Silness, 1963) and (Loe, 1967) to asses the severity of gingival inflammation) and Calculus Index (Ramfjord, 1959) were applied. Results showed that caries-free subjects constituted about 31.5% (1698 subject) of the total examined subjects (31.9% among deciduous teeth and 27.9% for permanent teeth). The dmft and dmfs values were 2.09 and 4.58, respectively. Boys demonstrated statistically significantly values compared to girls (P<0.05). On the other hand, statistically significant differences were found between the three areas of residency concerning dmfs values (P < 0.05). DMFT and DMFS values were of 2.17 and 3.76, respectively. Girls had higher DMFS means than boys, while the highest DMFT and DMFS means were in urban areas, while the lowest DMFT and DMFS means were found in periurban areas, statistically high significant differences were found between three areas. Occlusal surfaces of the deciduous teeth seemed to be the highest mean of decayed surfaces followed by distal surfaces. Concerning permanent teeth the occlusal surfaces had the highest DS mean followed by lingual surfaces while the mesial surfaces had the lowest DS mean. Regarding the treatment need, 54% of the children and school children were in need of one surface filling followed by 33.6% in need of two or more surface filling and the least percentage 1.9% were in need of crowns. The number of children and school childern with enamel mottling was (2020 subjects), representing 37.4 % of the total sample. The sample in Taiz, Hadramawat and Al-Hodaidah had the highest percentage of enamel mottling, in those three governorates school children in periurban areas had the highest percentage which were 19.7%, 17.6 %, and 13.8%, respectively. The school children who are Qat chewers were (287 school children), representing 5.3% of total sample (5% from males and 0.3% from females). The results of this study showed that the prevalence of gingivitis was high and increased significantly with age. Most of children examined showed mild plaque and gingivitis scores. Only 33.7% of the whole samples were gingivitisfree. Females demonstrated less gingivitis than males with statistically highly significant difference (P < 0.001). The children in rural areas had the highest plaque, gingival and calculus scores, while the lowest plaque gingival and calculus scores were found in periurban areas. Children with mottled enamel had statistically highly significant calculus scores compared to children and school children with normal enamel. The Qat chewers had high significant mean gingival index scores when compared to non Qat chewers (P < 0.001). Results illustrated that the total sample claimed to attend dental clinic regularly (at least once per year) only 1.4 %, the results showed also an association between levels of parents education and high percentage of plaque-free, gingivitis-free and caries-free children and school children. In conclusions, the dental health status among children and school children in Yemen was very bad, stressing on the evaluation of dental facilities, dental services, and content of fluoride ion in the water supplies in order to find sufficient ways to provide the children with primary preventive programmes and proper dental services.