Institute of Environmental Studies

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    Assessment of Biodiversity Based on the Perception of Local Community in Shergelneel Locality - Khartoum State
    (University of Khartoum, 2020) Noman Abdl Kirrem Kpoore
    ABSTRACT This study was undertaken in the Shergelneel locality (150 20′ and 160 39′ N: longitudes 310 36′ and 340 25′ E). Boundaries are defined by 4 states (River Nile State in the north Gezira in the south, Kassala and Gedaref in the east) and locality of Khartoum Bihary in the west. It covers an area of 8188 km2 which represents 30% of the total area of Khartoum state. The population is about 868147 inhabitant’s equivalent to 16% of Khartoum state population, distributed over 8 administrative units. The overall objective of the study is to assess the flora and fauna biodiversity in the area. The specific objectives of the study were 1) To identify flora, mammals and birds biodiversity in the area of study and 2) To assess community perception towards the biodiversity in their area. The study area was divided into three habitats according to the land topography; Wadis (lowlands), Flat Plain and Hills (about 400 ft high). The study was conducted for two consecutive years, (2017–2018) covering both dry and wet seasons. The area of biodiversity investigation covered 10.000 m2 (6000 m2 in Wadi habitat, 2500 m2 in Flat Plain habitat and 1500 m2 in Hill habitat). Transect/points method was used. Data on flora, mammals and birds biodiversity were collected at each sampling point. Various parameters like density, relative frequency, relative abundance; importance value index IVI and diversity indices (Shannon-Weiner index, Simpson Index and Evenness) have been used. The participants were selected as to represent 30% of villagers in three of each administrative, densely populated and evenly distributed within the study area (Abudelage, Wd-Housona and El-Gaili). A questionnaire and group discussions were conducted to learn about peoples’ perception about biodiversity. The results showed that there were 15 trees/shrubs and, 46 herbaceous, 35 bird's, and, 10 mammal's species in the three habitats. Maximum species richness of flora and birds were recorded from Wadi habitat. Maximum mammal's species richness was recorded from Hill habitat. In the three habitats A. tortilis subsp. radiana showed the highest species density (30.33), relative frequency (66.66%), relative abundance (85.85%) and Balanites aegyptiaca highest species IVI. Highest herbaceous species density (33.31) and IVI (95.39%), was due to Aristida mutabilis. Relative frequency (12.80%) was shown by Dichanthium annulatus, while relative abundance (61.33%) was shown by Schaemum ischaemoid. The effect of habitat throughout the seasons on the flora in the three habitat of the study area was found significant (sig=0.000 – 0.001). Birds and mammals’ species’ relative abundance was extremely low in the three habitats. Cream – colored courser highest birds species relative abundance (96.6%) and Desert jerboa highest mammals species relative abundance (99.68%). The effect of habitat on birds was found to be significant (sig = 003). The Shannon-Weiner Diversity Index was used to calculate the overall diversity of the study area. Results obtained revealed that, Wadi habitat had high diversity of trees, shrubs and herbaceous species (H'= 0.14-0.16), while Hill habitat had high diversity of birds and mammals (H'= 0.13 - 0.19). Flat Plain habitat had a higher evenness index of trees/ shrubs and mammals, while Hill habitat had higher herbaceous and birds evenness index. A higher Simpson index of trees/ shrubs and herbaceous was found in Hill habitat (0.48-0.85). Birds and mammals showed higher Simpson index in wadi habitat (0.92 - 0.99). Most (64%) of the community respondents observed that the area was rich in species of birds and mammals. In terms of vegetation cover most (89%), pointed to the types or trees, shrubs and herbaceous species that disappeared and the invasion of alien species. The species observed as common mammals were: African cape hare (27.3%), Fennec fox (21.5%), African wild cat (10.1%), Sand fox (19.5%), Long-eared hedgehog (8.3), Desert jerboa (7.3%) and Zorilla (6%). Common bird’s species observed were: Doves spp (38%), Chestnut billied sand grouse (17.3%), pied crow (13%), Demoiselle crane (9.7%), Black kite (6.3%), African march hairier (3.3%), Namaqua dove (4%), Black wood hoopoe (2.4%) and Cattle egret (6%). Common tress and shrubs species reported in the study area were: A. tortilis subsp. spirocarpa (20.5%), Balanites aegyptiaca (15.8%), A. ehrenbergiana (12.8%), Ziziphus spina-christi (14%), A. tortilis subsp. radiana (12%), A.nubica (8.3%), A. seyal (5.3%), A. mellifera (3.3%), Calotropis procera (6%) and Acacia nilotica (2%). Common herbaceous species observed in the study area included: Tribulus terrestris (22.9%), Ipomoea cordofana (21%), Schaemum ischaemoides (13.7%), Boerhavia coccinea (11.8%), Dichanthium annulatus (12.3), Cassia senna (6.5%), Aristida mutabilis (4.8%), Panicum turgidum (2.3%), Cymbopogon schoenanthus (1.3%), Cenchrus ciliaris (2%), and Cyperus rotundus (1.4%). Mammals and birds species which disappeared as observed by the respondents were: Antelopes (61.5%), followed by Common buzzard (6%), Guinea fowl (11.8%), Hyeans (17.3%) and Ostriches (3.4%). A large proportion of respondents across the study area (75%) reported the presence of illegal hunting of mammals and birds, overcutting of trees was reported by (78.2%) of the respondents. The invasive species in the study area included Calotropis procera as reported by (28.3%) of the respondents, while (62.8%) of the respondents pointed to the presences of the Prosopis glandulosa as invasive species. Most (66%) of the respondents noted that laws and legislations should be enforced, and they showed interest to participate in biodiversity conservation programs. It could be concluded that as compared with research methodology undertaken, changes in biodiversity could be matched with community observations. Some recommendations were proposed for protection of biodiversity. المستخلص اجريت الدراسة بمحلية شرق النيل (تقع بين خطي طول 150 20 و 160 39 شمالا: 310 36′ و 340 25 شرقًا), وحدودها مع 4 ولايات (نهر النيل شمالا و الجزيرة جنوبا ، وكسلا والقضارف شرقا) ومحلية الخرطوم بحري غربا. تغطي مساحة 8188 كيلومترا مربعا (تمثل 30٪ من إجمالي مساحة ولاية الخرطوم) . يبلغ عدد سكانها حوالي 868147 نسمة أي ما يعادل 16٪ من سكان ولاية الخرطوم موزعين على 8 وحدات إدارية. الهدف العام للدراسة تقييم حالة التنوع الحيوي والاهداف المحددة للدراسة تشمل: 1) تحديد انواع النباتات، الطيور والثديات: 2. تقييم مفهوم المجتمعات للتنوع الحيوي. قسمت منطقة الدراسة بناءا علي طبوغرافية الارض الي ثلاثة مواطن رئيسية وهي: الاودية (الاراضي المنخفضة)، السهول المسطحة والجبال (ارتفاعها أقل من 2000 قدم). أُجريت دراسة تقييم التنوع الحيوي في العام 2017 والعام 2018 لتغطي الموسم الجاف والرطب في مساحة قدرها 10000 متر مربع (الوادي 6000 متر مربع , السهول المسطحة 2500 متر مربع والجبال 1500 متر مربع. استخدم نظام الخطوط والنقاط في الدراسة. لكل نقطة جمعت المعلومات عن الاشجار/الشجيرات, الحشائش , الثديات و الطيور و التي تتضمن الكثافة – التردد – الوفرة- السيادة ومؤشر التنوع (شانون – ونر، سمبسون – افينس) بالإضافة للدراسة الاجتماعية لتقييم مفهوم تلك المجتمعات للتنوع الحيوي. تم اختيار المشاركين لتمثل 30٪ من القرويين في ثلاثة مناطق إدارية (ابودليق – ود حسونة - الجيلي) مكتظة بالسكان وموزعة بالتساوي داخل منطقة الدراسة. تم إجراء الاستبيان ومجموعات النقاش للتعرف على مفهم الناس للتنوع البيولوجي. صنفت وسجلت عدد 15 نوع من الاشجار/ الشجيرات ، 46 نوع من الحشائش، 35 نوع من الطيور و10 أنواع من الثديات على مستوى الثلاثة مواطن. الأودية تميزت بوجود أكبر عدد من أنواع الاشجار/الشجيرات ، الحشائش و الطيور بينما موطن الجبال تميز بوجود اكبر عدد من انواع الثديات . أعلى كثافة (30.33) ، تردد (66.66%) ووفرة (85.85%) وجد في شجرة السيال والسيادة لشجرة الهجليج ، أما في الحشائش, القو أعلى كثافة (33.31) وسيادة (95.39%) ، الحمراية أعلى تردد (12.80%) والدمبلاب أعلى وفرة (61.33%). طير التري ترة أعلى وفرة (96.6%) في الطيور والجربوع أعلى وفرة (99.96%) في الثديات. تبين تأثير كبير للموطن على الاشجار/ الشجيرات والحشائش والطيور. مؤشر التنوع (شانون- ونر) أعلى للأشجار/ الشجيرات والطيور في موطن الاودية (ح = 0.14 – 0.16) وللثديات (ح = 0.13 – 0.19) أعلى في موطن الجبال. مؤشر سمبسون للسيادة في موطن الجبال أعلى للأشجار والشجيرات (0.48 – 0.85) ، وفي الطيور والثديات أعلى في موطن الأودية (0.92 – 0.99). ذكر معظم من شملهم الاستبيان من المجتمع (64٪) أن المنطقة كانت غنية بأنواع الطيور والثديات. أما من حيث الغطاء النباتي فقد أشار (89٪) إلى إختفاء أنواع من الأشجار والشجيرات والحشائش وتوجد أنواع غريبة غازية . أنواع الثديات التي كانت شائعة هي: الارنب (27.3٪) ، ثعلب الفنك (21.5٪) ، القط الافريقي البري (10.1٪) ، ثعلب الرمال (19.5٪) ، القنفذ طويل الأذن (8.3) ، الجربوع الصحراوي (7.3٪) وزوريلا (6%). اما الطيور التي كانت شائعة هي : القطا (17.3%) ، الحمام (38%), الغراب (13%) , الحداة (6.3%) ، الرهو (9.7%) ، الصقر الرمادي (3.3) ، البلوم (4%) ، هداهد الغابات (2.4%) وطير البقر (6%). أنواع الأشجار والشجيرات هي الموجودة هي: السمر (20.5%) ، الهجليج (15.8%) ، سلم (12.8%) ، النبق (14%), السيال (12%) ، اللعوت (8.3%) ، الطلح (5.3%), الكتر (3.3%) ، العشر(6%) والسنط (2%). وآنواع الحشائش الموجودة هي: الضريسة (22.9%)، التبر (19%) ، الدمبلاب (13.7%)، التربة (11.8%)، الحمراية (12.3%) ، سنمكة (6.5%) ، قو (4.8%) ، تمام (2.3%) ، المحريب (1.3%), حسكنيت (2%) والسعده (1.4%). الثديات والطيور التي إختفت هي الغزلان (61.5%) ـ الضباع (17.3%) , الصقر الحوام (6%) ، دجاج الوادي (11.8%) والنعام (3.4%). معظم من شملهم الاستبيان (75%) اشارو إلى وجود الصيد غير المشروع ، كما اشارو (78.2%) إلى وجود القطع الجائر للاشجار. الانواع الغريبة الغازية تضم العشر كما ذكر (28.3%) والمسكيت (62.8%). معظم من شملهم الاستبيان (66%) اكدو على أهمية تفعيل القوانين والتشريعات واستعدادهم للمشاركة في برامج حماية التنوع الحيوي. بالمقارنة مع منهجية البحث المتبعة ، يمكن مطابقة التغييرات في التنوع الحيوي مع ما ذكره من شملهم الاستبيان من المجتمع. وضعت توصيات ومقترحات لتعزيز إدارة التنوع الحيوي.
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    تقويم الآثار الاقتصادية وفقاً للمواصفات القياسية العالمية: حالة تطبيق المواصفة 14001 على مصفاة الخرطوم
    (University of Khartoum, ) ., فاطمة أحمد محمد أحمد ; محمد الجاك أحمد
    The study deals with the environmental pollution and the economic impacts of the application of environmental management systems (ISO 14001) in Khartoum Refinery Company. The main objective of this study is to assess if there are environmental procedures and measures are directly related to the application of the environmental management systems (ISO 14001) at the Khartoum Refinery Company, in addition to the economic costs of environmental problems and the most important methods of environmental assessment, and identified the most important obstacles to the application of EMS. The researcher use the descriptive, analytical method based on the case study and derived the data from primary and secondary sources.. The data were analyzed by statistical analysis.. The community of the study consists of all employees of Khartoum refinery and the citizens who live around the refinery their number is about 3,000, the sample was selected in random way. The sample size is 150 individuals.. The most important results of the study are the effectiveness of the environmental management system applied in the company and in the community study where the percentage of approval of the sample of the administration and employees in the refinery on the effectiveness of the system in the general average (77.3%). However, there is a defect in the environmental components in the region, which led to the emergence of health problems which had an economic cost such as the treatment of the environmental effects and its impact on the health and productivity of the worker and the low productivity of agricultural land Where the cost of agriculture increased by 100% and productivity decreased by 30% . There are several criteria for measuring environmental impacts , such as determining the environmental damage resulting from the activity of economic units denominated in monetary units and this is linked to finding the profit equation for the economic unit source of pollution and to address the treatment of external costs. there is no obstacles to the application of the environmental management system in Khartoum refinery. The recommendations included the necessity of caring for the environment and protecting it from pollution by applying the environmental management systems in companies and factories.
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    Assessment of Land Degradation in the Central Part of North Kordofan State, Sudan, Using Geoinformation Techniques
    (University of Khartoum, ) Adam, Babiker Fadl Elseed Elsiddig ; Amna Ahmed Hamid
    The objective of this study is the assessment of land degradation in the Central Part of North Kordofan State through monitoring and mapping changes in vegetation cover and land uses in the years 1972, 1987, 2001, and 2014. The study relied on the interpretation and analysis of the Landsat images from Multispectral Scanner (MSS) of year 1972, Thematic Mapper (TM) of the year 1987, Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) for the year 2001, and Operational Land Imager (OLI) Landsat 8 of the year 2014, in addition to the analysis of soil samples, questionnaire, and meteorological data for 1984 to 2014. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Object Oriented Image Analysis (OOIA) and Normalized Differential Sand Dunes Index (NDSDI) were the main methods adopted in this study to assess the extent and degree of land degradation in the study area. The results revealed that the region had witnessed vegetation degradation. Within the first period (1972 to 1987) there was decrease (-18.87%) due to drought. Within the second period (1987 to 2014) there was an increase of (+24.7%) during 27 years due to increase in rainfall. Conversely, bare land area decreased by (-15.78%) in the same period. The produced land use maps showed changes in the major classes (Vegetation, Cultivated and Bare areas) where cultivated area showed increase in area coverage from 15% of the study area in1972 to 27.5 % in 2014 due to increase in rainfall and population in the study area. NDSDI map showed an increase in the quantity of sands and sand dunes that was equal to (2.2%) in the year 2014 due to wind erosion. Furthermore, the results of the soil properties analysis (physical and chemical) particularly texture analysis showed that most of the soil samples in the study area have low clay and high sand content which can lead to soil erosion by the wind. In addition, most of the soils of the study area are non-saline and non-sodic, except some parts of the study area which were saline soil. Interpretation of field observations and ancillary data confirmed the role of human impacts on the temporal change in both vegetation cover and soil especially, around the villages. The produced land degradation risk map showed that most of the study area is at high risk of degradation. The results indicated a trend of increase in annual rainfall amounts and rise in temperature during the last 30 years. The study concluded that large part of the study area was affected by land degradation due to climatic variability, human activities and mismanagement of the natural resources. Applications of Geoinformation techniques is recommended to facilitate monitoring, assessment and modeling of land degradation and to support setting future plans for land resources management.
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    The Enviromental Impct of Hasahisa Pesticids Graveard
    (University of Khartoum, ) Algadi, Mohamed Ismail Ibrahim ; -
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