Vol. 6, No. 1, 1998

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    A Note on the Effect of Fertilization on the Seed Quality of Faba Bean
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1998) Elsheikh, E.A.E.
    A filed experiment was conducted to study the response of four faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes to Rhizobium inoculation and nitrogen and chicken manure fertilization. The Rhizobium inoculation and chicken manure fertilization significantly increased the crude fibre, and significantly decreased the carbohydrate content, of the four genotypes. The protein content varied from 28.4% to 31.2%, and all treatments significantly increased the protein content in three out of the four genotypes. With the exception of one genotype, all treatments significantly increased the in vitro protein digestibility. The ash and moisture contents of the seeds were not affected by the fertilization treatments, and the tannin content varied inconsistently in the different genotypes and different fertilization treatments.
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    Effects of Biological and Chemical Fertilizers on Growth and Symbiotic Properties of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) Under Salt Stress
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1998) Ahmed, A.E. ; Elsheikh, E.A.E.
    The effects of chemical (nitrogen and phosphorus) and biological fertilizers (Rhizobium and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae [VAM] (Glomus sp.) on growth and symbiotic properties of faba bean under saline conditions were investigated in two pot experiments. Salinity significantly reduced the shoot fresh and dry weight, number of nodules, dry weight of nodules and percentage of mycorrhizal infection. Both VAM inoculation and phosphorus fertilization significantly increased the shoot and root fresh and dry weights, number of nodules and dry weight of nodules under normal and saline conditions. High levels of superphosphate (150 kg/ha) completely suppressed the enhancing effect of the VAM under normal conditions, and the effect was strong at 115 kg/ha under saline conditions. Inoculation of faba bean by Rhizobium significantly increased shoot and root fresh and dry weights, number and dry weight of nodules and pods fresh and dry weights, under saline and non-saline conditions. The dual inoculation increased the nodulation and dry matter under salt stress
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    Solid- state Fermentation of Sorghum Straw
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1998) Ayoub, F.N. ; Hamad, S.H. ; Dirar, H.A.
    Chemical analysis of sorghum straw showed that it is composed of 38.6% cellulose, 31.2% hemi-cellulose, 6.5% acid-detergent lignin, 8.7% crude protein and 3.1% lipids. The alkali pre-treatment removed the protein and lipid of the straw, but increased its digestibility from 24.6% to 51.3%. Solid-state fermentation of the straw with three fungal local isolates resulted in an increase in the crude protein content of the straw by 6.1-8.2% when the fungal isolates were cultivated in a straw-basal medium at the level of 1: 6 (wt/v) substrate: medium and incubated at 25oC and a pH of 5.0 for seven days. Extending the incubation period to ten days did not bring about an increase in the protein content of the straw. Fermentation also increased in the in vitro rumen digestibility of the straw to 55.7-62.2%
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    Effect of the Management Practices on Establishment, Growth, Yield and Quality of Bulb of Garlic (Allium sativum) at Shambat, Sudan. I. Clove Size and Ridge Orientation
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1998) Ali, A. M.
    The effects of three garlic clove sizes and four sides of ridge planting on crop establishment and yield and quality of bulbs were investigated at Shambat, Khartoum North, Sudan in 1990/91 and 1991/92 winter seasons. Clove size resulted in a notable differential response in crop establishment, vegetative growth and yield; yet the differences were not significant. The highest percent of crop emergence occurred when planting was on the northern side, followed by planting on the eastern, western and southern sides of the ridge. The pattern of crop development followed the same trend through to harvesting. Yields were significantly different among planting sides. Bulb splitting, as an undesirable character, was significantly different among clove sizes and sides of planting. Percent splitting was positively correlated with clove size and with soil temperature of the planting side. For best utilization of land and input resources, therefore, it may be advantageous to grade cloves so that spacing can be adjusted to clove size to insure more uniform emergence and establishment of the crop, and planting them on eastern and western sides.
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    Effect of Sowing Methods and Phosphorus Levels on Yield and Quality of Two Alfalfa Cultivars
    (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan, 1998) Ali, E.E. ; Abusuwar, A.O. ; Mustafa., F.A.
    A study was conducted during the period from November 1993 to April 1995 at the Demonstration Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, to investigate the effect of three levels of phosphorus fertilizer and two sowing methods on yield and quality of two alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars. Levels of phosphorus fertilizer used were 0,50 and 100 P2O5 kg/ha in the form of triplesuperphosphate (48% P2O5). The two alfalfa cultivars (Hegazi and Pioneer 5929) were planted on flat and on ridges. Phosphate fertilization at the rate of 100 P2O5 kg/ha increased dry matter production and leaf to stem ratio and improved forage quality. Sowing on flat increased dry matter production. The local cultivar Hegazi was superior to the introduced variety in dry matter yield, but the opposite was true for leaf to stem ratio and nutritive value.