Investigation And Selection Of Suitable Energy Storage Techniques Applicable In The Sudan

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Likun, Peter Keliona Wani
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This thesis investigates various energy storage techniques and selection of suitable techniques applicable in the Sudan to store up the surplus electrical energy during low demand periods to be released back to the grid during the periods of high demand. These techniques include: • Mechanical energy storage techniques such as flywheel energy storage, compressed air energy storage and pumped hydro storage. • Electrochemical energy storage such as batteries energy storage hydrogen energy storage and super capacitors energy storage. • Electrical energy storage such as superconducting magnetic energy storage, stores energy in the magnetic field created by the flow of direct current in a coil of superconducting material. The techniques that store energy in bulk quantities and for longer periods were identified. These include batteries, compressed air energy and pumped hydro storage. More elaborations were given to pumped hydro and compressed air energy storage. Sudan’s electricity supply and demand was investigated. It was found that, demand for electricity is high during hot season and low during cold season, also is high in the day time and low after midnight, according to the data from national electricity corporation. There is a gap between supply and demand during hot season. A pumped hydro was designed to bridge this gap. It stores up the surplus electricity during low demand periods in form of water, which can be used to generate electricity during high demand hours to supply the grid. A Kereri hill in Omdurman was chosen to be site for the reservoir where water is to be pumped to from the river Nile approximately two kilometers away from the reservoir. In the design calculations, the surplus electricity was converted to equivalent amount of water. Also the required pumping power was estimated.