University of Khartoum

Technical And Managerial Development For Raising Efficiency In

Technical And Managerial Development For Raising Efficiency In

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Title: Technical And Managerial Development For Raising Efficiency In
Author: Mohamed, Omer
Abstract: The present thesis is a research in the power generation field, specially in Dr. Sharif Power Station. The author in the present research has got use of his long experience in this field in the Sudan as well as abroad, where ultimately he dared to cope with modern sophisticated technologies in power generation. The author targeted from this thesis to reduce the generated power cost, and in the same time, to raise the efficiency of the generating units to higher levels – through practicing modern sophisticated technology that he aimed to introduce and transfer to the Sudan. As a product of a large number of processes, the electrical power generation represents about 30% of the initial energy of the primary fuel used. This is a very low figure, and partly explains the high cost of electricity compared with other sources of energy The electrical power generation is a result of processes of energy conversion. The chemical energy of fuels is converted to heat energy in the furnace or combustion chamber, which in its turn is converted to mechanical energy in the prime mover (e.g. gas turbine, steam turbine or diesel engine) which rotates the rotor of the generator, where it is converted to electrical power. During this process a large number of energy is dissipated as heat in the cooling water and in the exhaust gases, as we will see later. In the early 1970s an oil crisis took place due to the Middle East war of 1973. The prices of oil shot up from US$ 3 per barrel of oil to US$ 30 per barrel. Due to high cost of fuel, which represents at present 70% of the total electrical power generation cost, the energy conversion in power generation process has become more essential for efficient operations. The modern technology in power generation has led to efficiency improvement, and hence has led to running cost saving, e.g. using energy recovery methods leads to financial gain by reducing the cost of electricity production, and mainly by reducing fuel consumption. Through history the thermal efficiency has increased from 5% for the old steam engine to 30% for the gas turbine and to 33% for the steam turbine and finally to 52.5% for the combined cycle. The gas turbine and steam turbine efficiencies can be more raised by utilizing sophisticated technologies, e.g. air inlet chillers for gas turbines, and steam reheating for steam turbines, as we see later. The electrical energy consumed by a nation is directly proportional to its standard of living or its Gross National Product. For example, the under-developed countries use about 0.5 kW per person, compared with a rate in the developed world of between 5 and 10 kW per person (ref. 5). The subject matter of the authors M.Sc also dealt with Dr. Sharif Power Station, but from different aspects other than what will appear in the present Ph.D thesis. It is beneficial to show briefly herewith, the aspects of the M.Sc thesis in order to create a general concept to the reader about Dr. Sharif power station progress.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/handle/123456789/10209
Date: 2015-05-04


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