University of Khartoum

Occupational Exposure to Some Cholinergic Chemicals and Their Residues in Surface Fresh Water Sources in Central Sudan

Occupational Exposure to Some Cholinergic Chemicals and Their Residues in Surface Fresh Water Sources in Central Sudan

Show full item record

Title: Occupational Exposure to Some Cholinergic Chemicals and Their Residues in Surface Fresh Water Sources in Central Sudan
Author: Humed, Ali Mohmed Ali
Abstract: Exposure to cholinergic chemicals was investigated in two groups of workers: malaria control workers (MCW) and polyurethane foam industry workers (PURW) by monitoring the whole blood acetyl cholinestrase (AChE) activity. Exposure of MCW to temephos, as abate was monitored twice in male donor in may 2004 prior and after the working hours with temephos. Polyurethane foam industry workers (PURW) who are exposed to cholenergic chemicals, tris methyl azardenyl phosphin oxide (MAPO), tricrecylphosphate (TCP) and tritolylphosphate TTP was tested after the working hours. The whole blood acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activity was assessed by the lovibond cholinesterase test kit AF (402670) and the enzyme activity was expressed as % of the normal (unexposed subjec). PURW were subjected to pulmonary test also to assess any impact of prolonged repeated exposure to cholinergic chemicals on the respiratory system of the donors, using COMPACT 11 Spirometr vitalograph. Vital capacity (FVC), vital capacity in one second (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC ratio was used in assessing the degree of any obstruction exposure. Further the residues of some of the commonly used organophosphate (OP) pesticides were monitored in surface water 1n (2004-2005). A composite homogenized sample from Green belt lagoon and thirty two samples were taken from the major scheme drains in sugar cane schemes and cotton growing schemes (Ennesheisheeba, Umdilka, Kileikees, Assaliya, and Eshshowal drains) where an intensive pesticides application for MC or plant protection is known. Results indicated that cholinergic OPs larvicide used in MCW has slight effects on the whole blood acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activity of MCW where 80% of the donor, scored 100% prior the working hours and iii the rest of the tested subjects had normal AChE activity with slight depression (except one subject who showed a severe depression). PURW exposed to cholenergic chemicals had slight effects on AChE activity and pulmonary function. AChE depression varied in different groups according to tasks, occupation, exposure period and testing time. Correlation between AChE and pulmonary function was not confirmed statistically. Results of pesticides residues in Green belt water indicated the presence of the three OPs (malathion, temephos and chlorpyriphos with levels of 43.1, 22.2 and 291.3 ngl-1 respectively), the concentration was not high. Pesticides residues were found in 72% of the analyzed samples in major drains. The summer water was the most contaminated water. Malathion was the most frequent contaminant detected at least at low level, while chlorpyriphos showed a high level although it was found in 40% of the analyzed samples. Temephos was detected only in 6% of analyzed samples at law concentration. The levels of all the three OPs were not high. They were 0.45 ngl-1 for malathion, 0.0013 ngl-1 for temephos and 9.33 ngl-1 for chlorpyriphos. The residues concentrations varied according to season and location.
Description: 145page
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/handle/123456789/10937
Date: 2015-05-17


Files in this item

Files Size Format View

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show full item record

Share

Search DSpace


Browse

My Account