University of Khartoum

Environmental Disasters and their Impacts on Economic Development: A comparative study of Petroleum Sectors in the Sudan and Qatar

Environmental Disasters and their Impacts on Economic Development: A comparative study of Petroleum Sectors in the Sudan and Qatar

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Title: Environmental Disasters and their Impacts on Economic Development: A comparative study of Petroleum Sectors in the Sudan and Qatar
Author: Ahmed, Mohamed Ahmed Abdalla
Abstract: The current thesis of “ Environmental Disasters and their Impacts on Economic Development is a comparative study of Sudan and Qatar Oil Industry sectors that focuses on Environmental Planning and Management Systems (EPMS). The objective of the study is to explore means and methods to reduce adverse environmental consequences due to rapid developments in the oil industry and increasing economic growth in Sudan and Qatar over the past ten years, 1995-2005. Despite findings of the recent reports and studies that Sudan and Qatar contribute extremely small amounts of hazardous pollutants to the surroundings and atmosphere, the current thesis tries to identify opportunities for mitigating adverse effects and enhancement of sound, efficient, and effective environmental disasters preparedness and control measures all through the complete cycle of petroleum production and processing. The focus of the thesis is to produce a Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) report based on data generated from available reports and studies, interviews, and field visits. Data thoroughly examined to reflect the extent and rate of disasters occurrence, measure to mitigate their adverse consequences, and how this affects economic development in both the short and long term. The study elaborates on the environmental pollution impacts on selected ecosystems. Options and opportunities besides suggested technologies to reduce possibility of environmental disasters incidence were discussed in detailed accounts. The thesis highlights the national and international guidelines and measure to combat adverse effects of the petroleum industry through legal, managerial, and technological measures. Due to the importance of two major environmental disasters, and its potential devastating effects, a closer look was paid to produced water contamination of the soil and CO2 emissions to the V atmosphere. The researcher has also thoroughly looked at the down stream site of Khartoum Oil Refinery Co. (KOR) and Qatar Petroleum Refinery Co. (QPR). The main finding is that there is no presence of permanent monitoring devices and periodic assessment to concentrations of main pollutants at both sites. This attributes to the lack of environmental health and safety measures, absence of disaster mitigation plans, incorporation of modest mode of technology, and allocation of weak budgeting to environmental sections at the establishments, particularly for KOR. While air pollutants concentrations assessment could be done at KOR, it happened to be difficult to single out quantities and concentrations of air pollutants from QP Refinery that is situated in an industrial area encompassing a number of petrochemicals plants. Air mix has been affected by narrow presence of all petro-industries in the same place and wind directions at the different climatic seasons. In KOR water recycled to serve different purposes, including plantation surrounding the facility. The idea is not to dispose water to either the Nile stream or the underground aquifer. In QPR there is no plantation available to take some loads of waste water, and to absorb some air pollutants. A set of cluster recommendations have been suggested to cover areas of Environmental Planning and Management; technological concerns, Research and Development (R&D), and training and human resources upgrade. The study suggests that an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and/or Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) should be mandatory. Further research should be carried out to integrate economic instrument into EIA and/or QRA to complement regulatory requirements. This could be attained through a mathematical model to calculate potential hazards, and consequently suggest appropriate mitigation practices.
Description: 295page
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/handle/123456789/10978
Date: 2015-05-18


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