University of Khartoum

دور الحمار في مشروع الجزيرة

دور الحمار في مشروع الجزيرة

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Title: دور الحمار في مشروع الجزيرة
Author: جعفر محمد نصر حمد, حمد
Abstract: The student aims at investigating the accuracy of information, knowledge and explaining phenomena and types of behaviour by studying the role and function done by the animal in the Gezira Agricultural Scheme - as a base structure- in the cultural and social development for the population. The student assumes the donkey as an example of the animal for its role and function it carries out towards the farmer in the scheme and throughout the long history in its presence with the population including other animals. For objective reasons, the specialists do not pay attention to it in their studies and researches handling the animal in the scheme. It is a basic element participating in economic, social and cultural development. The upgrading of it is a step towards promoting the farmer and his tools. The population of Gezira employed the animal in their life as a production tool in ploughing, preparing the land, harvesting and transport. They also manufactured their leather. Their knowledge specified the time of farming and harvesting together according to the natural phenomena and animal is a part of their cultural inheritance –their folklore- in naming the stages of rain and growth of plants. Because of the centralized economic development plans of scheme established by the British colonizer and adopted by the subsequent national governments and the boards of the scheme, the animal has been isolated from the agricultural rotations upon which the seasonal production depends as it is a source of food and cash. It is also slaughtered by the population in their social and religious occasions. The population of Gezira have not been allowed to plan for their development since the establishment of the scheme and the colonizer planned for establishing the scheme without taking notice of them –the land was possessed and the relations of production were formed in agriculture according to the colonizer's plans and economic strategy, hence the owners of bigger lands became richer and the economic situation concerning those who own smaller lands deteriorated. The neglection of the plans of the establishment of the Gezira scheme and the policies of its boards after Sudanizing the scheme , representing the traditional production of cotton together with isolating the animal from the scheme, the cultural inheritance of the population are the main reasons of the ق collapse of the scheme as the land lost fertility then the productivity reduced and the infra structure deteriorated. All that led to the impoverishment of the farmers and population for whom development was established as the folklore plays doubled role, positively and negatively in the plans and programmes of the developing projects which target the humanbeing. The culture of Gezira people is connected with the environment and human diversity related by mutual benefits, rights keeping and partnership in the land for grazing and farming. They build their social and cultural growth together with their ways of executing their development by interacting with the land in their daily life and environment. They know grazing and farming as integrated activities, so their cultural inheritance in work and life is created by environment and human diversity as a basis of growth and prosperity to act collective mind. The donkey has remained as symbol in the life of Gezira farmers of those who won smaller lands (Hawashat), supporting them in transporting goods and social communication. They employed it – the donkey cart- in resisting poverty as a more advance tool in transporting and supporting families financially. A meaning of the meanings of poverty –resisting culture is established- such a culture has solutions and the ability of defending people and the society, so it deserves respecting and should be carefully studied.
URI: http://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/handle/123456789/11653
Date: 2015-06-13


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